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Winter 2013

Home/Will We Kiss Our Ash Goodbye?

Will We Kiss Our Ash Goodbye?

An ecological catastrophe is unfolding across the upper Midwest and is spreading outward, as scientists struggle to find solutions to the latest insect invasion: emerald ash borer.

By Dr. Deborah G. McCullough

Emerald Ash Borer.

David Cappaert.

Toledo, Ohio trees after emerald ash borer in August 2009.

Toledo, Ohio trees after emerald ash borer in August 2009. Credit: D. Herms.

Ash trees in a Toledo, Ohio neighborhood in June 2006.

Ash trees in a Toledo, Ohio neighborhood in June 2006. Credit: D. Herms

It’s not like we haven’t seen this sort of thing before. In the early 1900s, people who lived in the eastern U.S. watched chestnut blight, an exotic pathogen, roll through, killing large and small trees and altering the hardwood forest forever. A few decades later, Dutch elm disease, an exotic pathogen carried by an exotic bark beetle, came through, killing majestic American elms along city streets and in forests. Today, more than 450 species of nonnative forest insects and at least 17 significant forest pathogens are established in the U.S. Most go unnoticed, but about 15 percent have had major consequences. And it’s starting again.

Emerald ash borer, an Asian insect first identified in Detroit, Mich., in 2002, has become the most destructive forest insect to ever invade the U.S. Tens of millions of ash trees have already been killed in forests and swamps, along waterways and in urban, suburban and rural neighborhoods. Populations of emerald ash borer, commonly known as EAB, have been found in 18 states, along with Ontario and Quebec. And almost assuredly, there are more populations, simmering away, that haven’t yet been discovered.


An adult emerald ash borer feeding on a leaf.

An adult emerald ash borer feeding on a leaf. Credit: David Cappaert.

Adult EAB beetles are beautiful insects and amazingly good at finding and colonizing ash trees. Unlike many insects, EAB does not appear to produce any long-range pheromones to attract potential mates. Instead, the beetles use their vision and the mix of chemicals emitted by ash leaves, bark and wood to find their host trees and each other. They are particularly attracted to the blend of compounds given off by stressed or injured ash trees and to specific shades of purple and green. Once beetles find an ash tree, they nibble along the margins of leaves throughout their three- to six-week life span. Leaf feeding is important for the beetles to mature, but it has virtually no effect on the trees. After 15 to 20 days of leaf feeding, the females begin to lay a few eggs at a time, tucking them beneath bark flaps or in bark crevices. Many beetles mean many eggs — bad news for the tree when they hatch.

The tiny, cream-colored EAB larvae hatch from their eggs in mid-summer and chew through the rough outer bark to reach a layer of inner bark, called phloem. Phloem is the tissue used by trees to transport carbohydrates and other nutrients from the canopy down to the roots. The larvae feed in s-shaped tunnels, called galleries, for several weeks in summer and early fall. As the larvae grow, the galleries increase in size. Galleries often etch the outer ring of sapwood, which ash trees use to transport water up from the roots to the canopy. A few larvae feeding in a large branch or on the trunk of an ash tree have little effect on the tree. Over time, however, as the density of larvae builds, the ability of the tree to transport nutrients and water is disrupted by the galleries. The canopy begins to thin, and large branches may die. Eventually, the entire tree succumbs.

Once EAB populations begin to build, nearly all ash trees in the forest, swamp or urban area are likely to become infested and die — often within a time span of only a few years. In southeast Michigan, where EAB was first established, scientists have documented 99 percent mortality in forest stands dominated by green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), white ash (Fraxinus americana) or black ash (Fraxinus nigra). More than 60 million ash trees, ranging from one inch to five feet in diameter, have been killed by EAB in this area alone.

We know most adult EAB stay within about a half mile of where they emerge. In any population, however, at least a small proportion of beetles seem to fly farther — for reasons that are as yet unknown. Adult EAB are relatively good fliers; they’re much more agile and streamlined than bark beetles, for example. Mature females are probably capable of flying three miles. Unfortunately, EAB has been moved across longer distances by people who unknowingly transported infested ash trees from nurseries or recently cut logs or firewood. Once an ash tree dies or is cut, the phloem dries out, and it will not be re-infested, but any larvae already under the bark can complete their development and emerge as adults. Federal and state quarantines have been imposed to regulate the transport of ash trees, logs, wood and related materials to reduce the risk of additional EAB introductions.

In fact, accidental transportation of infested ash is probably how EAB got to North America in the first place. The introduction of EAB into the U.S. and Canada almost certainly occurred when infested wood crating or pallets originating in China arrived in the U.S. In its native range in China, EAB functions as a secondary pest, colonizing only severely stressed or dying Asian ash trees. In North America, however, native ash trees have no co-evolutionary history with EAB and have few defenses to resist this pest. While EAB beetles still prefer to colonize stressed ash trees, they will also readily infest — and eventually kill — healthy ash trees.


Larvae feeding on the trunck of an ash tree.

Larvae feeding on the trunck of an ash tree. Credit: David Cappaert.

The potential economic and ecological impacts of EAB are staggering. National inventory data show more than eight billion ash trees in U.S. forests and woodlands, with a value estimated at more than $280 billion. Ash trees are especially abundant in eastern forests, but the mother lode of diversity is actually in the southwestern U.S., where at least eight of 16 native ash species occur.

Cultivars of green ash, white ash and velvet ash (F. velutina) have also been planted in landscapes and along roadways across the U.S. for decades. Because ash was so commonly propagated, nurseries sustained millions of dollars in losses when the EAB quarantines were imposed. Hundreds of millions of mature urban ash trees are growing on municipal and private land in the U.S. A 2010 analysis in Ecological Economics examined the potential costs of either treating or removing 50 percent of landscape ash trees in urban areas affected by EAB. Projected costs would exceed $10.5 billion by 2019. If suburban ash trees are included, costs nearly double.

Estimating costs of treatment or removal, however, does not do justice to the full economic impacts of losing ash trees, especially large trees, in residential and developed areas. Ash trees comprise up to 50 percent of the municipal trees growing along boulevards and in parks in some cities. Once ash trees die, they begin to decay relatively quickly, posing hazards to homes, vehicles and people. Losing a substantial portion of mature trees dramatically alters the appearance of neighborhoods and diminishes property values. Stormwater run-off increases. Shade decreases, and air conditioners run longer. In southeast Michigan municipalities, water use soared as a result of widespread ash mortality, resulting in surcharges levied by the regional water authority.

Ash trees cut down dur to EAB.

Ash trees cut down dur to EAB. Credit: Deborah G. McCullough.

Economic projections, of course, do not address the ecological consequences likely to occur following extensive mortality of ash trees in forests, particularly in areas where ash is a major component of the overstory. Green ash, the most widely distributed ash in the U.S., grows in many types of soils and is often abundant along rivers, streams and other waterways, as well as in forests. White ash is also widely distributed, frequently growing in mixed stands with oaks, maples and other hardwoods. Black ash occurs most commonly in swamps and bogs in the northern U.S. and parts of Canada, often in sites where it is the only tree present. Unfortunately, black ash is also a highly preferred host for EAB and very vulnerable — it generally takes fewer EAB larvae to kill black ash trees than similarly sized trees of other ash species. The long-term ramifications of ash mortality in forests and riparian settings are not yet known, but can be expected to cascade through ecosystems. Nutrient cycling, hydrology, composition of herbaceous plants and the habitat available for birds, mammals, insects and other animals are all likely to be affected.

Along with its ecological value, black ash has cultural and spiritual significance for many American Indian tribes from Minnesota to Maine, as well as First Nation tribes in Canada. Some tribes even trace their origin to a black ash tree that split — one fork became man and the other became woman. The art of black ash basketry has been handed down from generation to generation in many tribes. Basket-making families have traditional harvest grounds, where they carefully select and harvest a few black ash trees each year. Most native basket makers are well aware of EAB and what this invader means for black ash across North America. Cooperative efforts to collect and preserve ash seeds, including seeds from black ash trees, have been undertaken by a number of tribes, along with scientists from federal agencies and universities.


Girdling black ash trees.

Girdling black ash trees. Credit: John Bedford.

Whether anything can be done to protect North American ash from EAB depends on whether your glass is half-full or half-empty.

Detecting new EAB infestations and trees with low densities of larvae remains a major challenge. Newly infested trees exhibit few, if any, external symptoms, making visual surveys unreliable. The most effective detection method involves girdling an ash tree in spring. Girdling — removing a band of bark and phloem around the circumference of the trunk — induces stress that attracts adult EAB, including egg-laying females, during the summer. The girdled tree must then be debarked — or burned or chipped — in fall or winter. If larval galleries are found, then the tree or the site is certainly infested. Despite the effectiveness of girdled trees, this is a labor-intensive survey method and often impractical. Purple or green artificial traps, baited with lures comprised of chemicals produced by ash trees, are also used for EAB surveys in many states. The baited traps, however, are not highly effective — in part because the lures and traps must compete with the live ash trees in the area. Most “outlier” infestations of EAB were not discovered until they were at least four to six years old.

Despite these challenges, much has been learned in the 10 years since EAB was discovered, and progress has been substantial. New systemic insecticides and application technology are available, enabling homeowners and municipalities to effectively and consistently protect valuable landscape trees. Systemic insecticides are typically applied either by injecting the product directly into the base of the trunk or by drenching the soil around the base of a tree. These products have relatively low toxicity to humans and few impacts on non-target organisms. One recently approved product provides two to three years of highly effective protection, reducing costs and logistical issues for homeowners and municipal arborists.

Federal agencies are hopeful that biological control may eventually play a role in EAB management, as well. Millions of dollars have been spent on a major effort to identify, evaluate, rear and release parasitoid wasps that attack EAB in China. Parasitoids are tiny, highly specialized wasps that lay eggs on immature stages of a host insect. After hatching, the immature wasp feeds on the host insect, eventually killing it as it completes its own development. Scientists from the U.S. and China worked together to identify parasitoids that appeared to be important natural enemies of EAB in China. Selected parasitoid species were then screened in quarantine facilities to determine their “host range” and assess whether they might pose any ecological risk in North America. Two species of parasitoids that attack EAB larvae and one tiny wasp that attacks EAB eggs are now being reared in large numbers in a U.S. Department of Agriculture facility and released in states with EAB infestations. Whether these Asian imports will be able to actually control EAB populations and prevent damage to ash trees may take years to determine.

Injecting an ash tree with insecticide to protect it from EAB.

Injecting an ash tree with insecticide to protect it from EAB. Credit: Deborah G. McCullough.

In the meantime, scientists are learning more about native, natural enemies of EAB. In the past, native parasitoid wasps in the U.S. have evolved to find and attack the larvae of native beetles, such as bronze birch borer, that colonize stressed or dying trees. Until recently, however, native parasitoids rarely, if ever, attacked EAB larvae. At least one native parasitoid, Atanycolus cappaerti, now seems to be “learning” about EAB. This tiny wasp had never been studied and did not even have a scientific name until 2010. In the last five years, Atanycolus cappaerti has become increasingly common, usually in sites characterized by heavily infested, dying ash trees. Relatively little is yet known about this wasp and whether it will be able to slow the population growth of EAB.

A bright spot in the EAB saga involves blue ash (F. quadrangulata), a North American species which ranges from southern Michigan to Kentucky, Tennessee and Missouri. Scientists recently determined that blue ash is relatively resistant to EAB, making it likely that this species will survive the EAB invasion. Understanding more about the chemical and physical traits that underlie blue ash resistance may eventually lead to selective propagation of resistant ash cultivars.

Many areas — from individual neighborhoods to large cities — are beginning to implement an integrated approach for EAB management. Healthy landscape ash trees, for example, can be treated with a systemic insecticide, while urban ash in poor condition can be removed, reducing the amount of ash phloem available for EAB reproduction. Another management option involves using girdled trees as “trap trees.” Once girdled trees have been debarked in fall or winter, the EAB larvae in the trees will be killed before they can complete development. A pilot project called SLAM (SLow Ash Mortality) was launched in two EAB sites in upper Michigan in 2009 to evaluate different management options. Results to date show the combination of insecticide injections, selective ash removal and trap trees is slowing the growth of the EAB population in the two areas.

On the other hand, there is still plenty of cause for concern. While practical for urban and suburban trees, insecticides are not a solution for the millions of ash trees in forested or riparian settings. While many scientists are optimistic about the potential success of the Asian wasps imported for biological control, others point out that there are few examples of parasitoids controlling any phloem-feeding insect. Moreover, federal funding for activities such as EAB detection, research and outreach is expected to be cut by 75 percent in the next year. It seems inevitable that we will most likely kiss millions more ash trees goodbye before we find a good solution to EAB.

Adult emerald ash borers mating.

Adult emerald ash borers mating. Credit: David Cappaert.

Dr. Deborah G. McCullough is member of the American Forests Science Advisory Board, a professor of forest entomology at Michigan State University and a member of a multi-disciplinary working group assigned to identify nonindigenous forest insects and pathogens established in the U.S. 

Learn what you can do in the fight against EAB.


  1. vpreilly March 25, 2013 at 4:54 pm - Reply

    Great report (from Middleton, Wisconsin — loaded with ash trees–most 35 years old and slightly older.

  2. J. Luddite October 10, 2013 at 9:54 pm - Reply

    Great. Globalization, the gift that keeps on giving!

  3. Scott December 2, 2013 at 8:35 pm - Reply

    This has now become our first modern day extinction event of the 21st century. And it happens within 12 years of EAB’s first discovery to a region. The glutinous Borers kill off young trees before reaching seeding age of 10, or when they achieve 1″ DBH in size, and Borer’s population crashes once they finish off their only food source.

    Treated Ash tree owners in some parts of Michigan have already cut back on insecticide because danger from EAB has finally passed after 12 years of infestation pressure. Chicago has successfully saved 36,000 so far too!

    Collection of indigenous locally evolved seeds is the only way we can preserve the precious fraxinus DNA they contain. This will allow us to someday return the exact same species to the local forests someday.

    Remember, the Fraxinus Ash began on our prehistoric American continent before spreading to other land masses during ancient geopoetry events. Green Ash has a lifespan of 300 and White 600 years. And in Cities like Chicago, Ash is the top tree species of the local “Elm-Ash-Cottonwood” ecosystem. It is an American icon worth saving. Especially since 44 other species that totally rely on Ash will also go extinct if we don’t help.

    Scottie Ash Seed

  4. RobbieK December 7, 2013 at 9:58 pm - Reply

    The only thing that needed to be done to kill off the EAB was spraying, but because Southeast Michigan is chock full of liberals who live in a bubble of unreality, they wouldn’t allow it. Unbelievable.

    • LaNell Barrett February 16, 2014 at 10:34 am - Reply

      The Libs like to complain, yet never use their collective excuse for a BRAIN.

    • Anne March 17, 2014 at 1:13 am - Reply

      Please read my comment below. Conservatives were just as responsible as liberals for what happened.

    • Michelle May 26, 2014 at 12:39 pm - Reply

      Spraying doesn’t work. Only the application of select very expensive insecticides protect vulnerable trees if you catch it in time. Politics has nothing to do with it. Maybe do a little research before launching into political tinged rants.

    • Susanne April 18, 2015 at 2:24 pm - Reply

      Robbie, I bet you always find some way to bring politics into every subject. If you read the article, you would know that insecticides do very little to resolve the overwhelming situation. You would also know that the source of the EAB is Asia. So, if you would like to bring politics into this, you can blame mega-corporations for using cheap labor and cheap products from China, most of whom are GOP supporters. And, you can thank federal and state regulation, also loathed by the GOP, for quarantining the transport of all Ash wood products to the U.S. since this disaster has occurred.

      • stephanie fox September 24, 2015 at 5:44 pm - Reply

        Spraying doesn’t work, but injecting trees with insecticide does. It has to be done every two years for larger trees and once ever three years for smaller trees. This can’t be done in rural forests, but can be done in urban forests.

        Putting politics into this discussion is just silly. This is about what works and what doesn’t work.

  5. LaNell Barrett February 16, 2014 at 10:31 am - Reply

    Tacky title for this article.
    Ash trees are a horrific loss…not to pun about.

  6. bob March 6, 2014 at 3:08 pm - Reply

    I hate the emerald ash boreer

  7. Anne March 17, 2014 at 1:12 am - Reply

    No one in the media or in government seems to be asking how we could do more to prevent the next Asian-insect catastrophe from arriving. The ash borer apparently arrived in raw wood, and it was utterly jaw-droppingly stupid to allow solid raw wood from Asia to be imported to North America, given the known risks (that’s how other tree pests and diseases have arrived here). What is being done NOW to prevent the next ash borer from arriving? Are we really dumb enough to think Asia doesn’t have other species-extirminating insects that could cost more billions of dollars if they got here?

    And as a former resident of southeast Michigan, I can testify that some of the people who would not allow spraying or tree removal on their land to stop the ash borer from spreading were property-rights-citing CONSERVATIVES, not liberals!

    • Scottie Ash tree seed May 5, 2014 at 7:32 pm - Reply

      Anne, the Chinese now require wooden skids produced in America(& everywhere)coming into their country to be properly chemically treated and marked with an iron brand to show its been done.

      Religious conservatives seem to take the harshest view by proclaiming that “The outcome for our endangered Iconic American Ash tree should be left to Evolution which kills off weaker species while rewarding the winners” & “Destructive Invasives introduction would have happened naturally someday anyways”.

      Besides the blame lying with Detroit Auto corporation’s who took advantage of cheap Chinese labor, who took advantage of building needed transportation skids from their towns hundreds of dead public Ash trees during the late 80’s…

      Full blame from delayed identification of something new killing all the ash trees around suburban Detroit lies squarely on the “Tree care” trade whose employed “Degreed” Arborist should have immediately realized that absolutely no native Borers produce “D” shaped exit holes!

      Not until some decade later was EAB officially identified in 2002, which also means Chicago’s introduction had to have happened in 2001, but not identified here until built up enough population by 2006.

      So keep an eye out for why things are dying in your community, it might already be the next Asian invasive selecting the way overpopulated Maple tree species. Or even one bad bug or disease that will kill all the tree species in America, not just one like the past!

  8. Barbara Benson May 21, 2014 at 3:27 pm - Reply

    I just learned about the Emerald Ash Borer … I knew something was wrong early and called arborists but they had no idea via phone. I should have brought them to see the entire tree. I sprayed for some kind of insect in the leaves. My tree always seems stressed and now it has sprouts coming out the sides. I am pretty sure the infestation as passed. I planted 1998 … it was sickly 2003 … I have to check photos and now it is full of wood pecker holes and I still want to save it. It is leafing out quite fine. I always water and feed it so maybe … and it is an unusal Canadian variety Patmore Ash … something has also attacked my Mountain Ashes and I have to look that up too. It is getting hard to have anything nice. Sad situation soon will only have sticks.

  9. ChipQ May 28, 2014 at 10:25 am - Reply

    Michigan was devastated by the ash borer. The good news is that I found at least three healthy, mature ash trees in my yard the have not been touched.

    • Scottie Ash tree seed June 13, 2014 at 2:12 am - Reply

      Do you mean you just found out your property has Ash, but before you knew them just as trees? Mature for Green Ash is 300 & 600 for White, and are only teenagers when 100-150 years of age. Measure their trunk size and I may estimate trees ages if you would like.

  10. Chris Lawrence June 16, 2014 at 9:03 pm - Reply

    I have the EAB demons in my two ash trees. I began treating them this week. My trees have water sprouts. Should I prune them off or are the sprouts the only hope for my devastated trees?

    • matt July 5, 2014 at 3:55 pm - Reply

      your treatment is probably too late. if all but the sprouts die, cut down the tree and all but one sprout. the tree might regrow and you can treat it before its too late.

      • Scottie Ash seed July 26, 2014 at 7:01 pm - Reply

        Keep some of those sucker shoots attached Matt because tree is producing them for healing process after losing most of its Meristems tips from above. People mistakenly remove them because they are unsightly and think by cutting them off, trees resources will be directed upward where branch die off is occurring.

        These emergency shoots are weakly attached when young, and will break off in lite wind. Just remove the biggest ones before their cut off wounds are too big to heal over. Also, some might become permanent to rebuild trees lost crown. I have seen 100 year old examples of Ash that lost their crowns in storm some 50 years ago with their crowns regrown in this manor.

        Ancient Coppice method utilizes stump shoots to regrow new tree from their existing root systems undamaged from EAB. This will keep that original organism alive if historic. Britain has trees with re-grown 400 year old above ground parts, and 1500 year old root systems.

      • Scott August 17, 2014 at 4:31 pm - Reply

        If drench applied late, water tree to help insecticide uptake or have treatment professionally re-done this year. Then start applying earlier yourself again in two years. Also, double dose by applying one in Fall and again in spring.

    • Scottie Ash seed July 26, 2014 at 7:03 pm - Reply

      Check out my reply to Matt to answer your question about removing shoots.

      • Chris Lawrence July 30, 2014 at 10:39 am - Reply

        Thank you for the advice. I will protect the water sprouts. Should I remove only the dead branches or include the seriously struggling branches as well?

        • Scottie Ash seed August 7, 2014 at 9:47 pm - Reply

          Chris, the struggling branches that are still alive but only produce sparse leaf growth will either take several years to recover, will never recover and stay the same, or are the first ones to be lost to next years re-infestation generation. Ash is drought tolerant but tree will give up on weaker branches first. It could also be that it does not take much new Phloem Borer damage to kill off weakened branches. Also EAB is attracted to the stressed branches the most, like it is in its home range of Asia. Uptake of Insecticide does reach weakened limbs, but it takes longer. Thats why owners of 30%+ damaged Ash should be warned that trees crown could be misshapen for many years to come or even for rest of trees life. I would keep damaged living branches attached and see what happens. Caution weakened limbs do break off if they have a lot of end weight or had their deep heartwood compromised from previous Wood borer attack.

          • Christine Lawrence August 9, 2014 at 10:24 am

            I thank you again. You have been MUCH more helpful than my county’s extension office.

          • Scott August 17, 2014 at 4:27 pm

            Christine, even some of the best tree experts are still supplying Ash tree owners & Municipalities with outdated theory & misinformation. My best sources have been university field studies produced technical papers and my intense personal observations since 2009. Luckily that’s when our city of Chicago began their overwhelmingly successful “experimental” treatment program too. Just remember drench or soil injected treatments need to be applied by May 15th, and double dose rates of insecticide will not kill trees, EAB will. Tree-age “Rescue” injections can still be applied in August and uptaken within 72 hrs-2 weeks into all living parts of trees to target that years re-infestation larvae before they reach their damaging 3rd & 4th instar stages! Christine, just have anyone e-mail me at and watch your tree in early Sept. for separate limbs/branches that lose leaves since they wont fully come back in spring. Also water tree with open hose if droughty conditions. At worst have tree cut down and stump cut as low as possible, and hopefully undamaged root system will regrow new Coppice tree. Keep in touch so I know what happens…

  11. 反服貿 June 23, 2014 at 2:58 am - Reply

    Hey there! Do you use Twitter? I’d like to follow you if that
    would be okay. I’m definitely enjoying your blog and look
    forward to new posts.

    • Susan Laszewski July 17, 2014 at 6:19 pm - Reply

      You can follow us on twitter @AmericanForests

  12. Jonathan July 2, 2014 at 11:21 am - Reply

    We are considering putting THERMORY on a deck, and the company says it is made from “sustainable ash” – does anyone know if the trees killed by EAB get used for this product?

  13. Mary July 19, 2014 at 11:02 pm - Reply

    The cost is umbelievable to take down all these Ash Trees grind the stump and repair the area or replant a tree. We have 160 trees in our community. We should charge a EAB tas on all goods coming into the USA from Chine as that is where the EAB came front.

  14. spanish fly September 3, 2014 at 5:48 pm - Reply

    Pretty! This has been an incredibly wonderful post.

    Many thanks for providing this info.

  15. Stuart September 5, 2014 at 6:59 pm - Reply

    Good article. Too bad there isn’t a national effort to save these trees, considering the $380 economic impact on the country. Our neighborhood has banded together to try to save what few we have left. Most folks don’t even know what hit their trees, or that they had an ash in their yard in the first place. The only truly effective treatment is Emamectin Benzoate, sold under the brand name of Tree-Age. It’s about $560 a liter, it’s restricted only to licensed applicators, and it doesn’t go very far. Most people will not opt to spend the $13 per inch of tree diameter for this treatment every two years. So, the manufacturer is basically killing off their potential market by overpricing their product. If the EAB is bad, wait until the Asian Longhorn Beetle becomes established. It’ll make the EAB infestation look like a cold sore. The ALB likes hardwoods and there is no known treatment. Unbelievable how little attention these invasive species are getting.

    • Susanne April 18, 2015 at 2:26 pm - Reply

      Stuart, if you read the article, you would see that there are both federal and state quarantines in place to regulate the shipment of Ash wood products to the U.S. from Asia, which is where the EAB originated.

  16. luke September 19, 2014 at 7:42 pm - Reply

    Isn’t the best solution to keep seeds of all species. Then after a vast area is wiped out of both trees and borers, then small isolated stands of ash are replanted. While this will never lead to widespread reintroduction in several lifetimes, it will prevent total extinction in North America.

    • Susanne April 18, 2015 at 2:28 pm - Reply

      In the article, it states that many Native Americans ARE saving seeds, especially of the Black Ash, which has spiritual significance to them.

  17. Sally shaw May 9, 2015 at 10:15 pm - Reply

    We have a large ash that we are removing due to the dab infecting it. Two questions. What do we do with the wood from it. And we have two very young patmore ash trees. Are they also susceptible to eat.

  18. Joyce Ely September 3, 2015 at 11:09 pm - Reply

    So sad…..there are many Ash trees dying here in Bucks County PA. Sadly, invasive plants will move in quickly.

  19. Tim Dean January 10, 2016 at 12:43 pm - Reply

    Re growing of the ash tree stump has begone on my property.Just wondering if they will produce seeds eventualy . I cut the dead tree’s down and saplings are growing from the stump.

  20. Em March 9, 2016 at 6:56 pm - Reply

    Does anyone know how many emerald ash trees have been killed by eab nation wide?

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