Winter Sunrise

by Loose Leaf Contributor
Inlet to Payette Lake

Inlet to Payette Lake in Idaho at sunrise. CreditL Charles Knowles

We just love this photograph by Charles Knowles of an inlet to Idaho’s Payette Lake at sunrise. We all have things to do and places to be, but don’t forget to stop and enjoy the winter. In the words of Robert Frost:

Whose woods these are I think I know.
His house is in the village though;
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.

My little horse must think it queer
To stop without a farmhouse near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year.

He gives his harness bells a shake
To ask if there is some mistake.
The only other sound’s the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.

The woods are lovely, dark and deep.
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.

- Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening by Robert Frost


Younger Trees Better Repel Mountain Pine Beetle

by Loose Leaf Team

By Lisa Swann

whitebark pine killed by mountain pine beetle

This pine has likely been killed by beetles. Credit: Monty VanderBilt

A new study from researchers at the University of Colorado, Boulder shows that younger trees with smoother bark are better at repelling the mountain pine beetle.

The epidemic pine beetle attack has spread across western states since 1996, affecting millions of acres of forest, including those in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

Colorado doctoral student Scott Ferrenberg, who led the study, noted that the mountain pine beetle had a harder time holding on to smooth-bark trees, which have a slippery surface. These tend to be the younger trees in a stand. The findings, published in the journal Functional Ecology, may help land managers decide which trees to cull and which trees can help protect forested areas against the pine beetle.

To test their findings, the researchers placed 22 beetles on a rough patch of bark, then on a smooth patch. After five minutes, 22 beetles held onto the rough bark, but all the beetles had fallen off the smooth bark.

“We found trees that had both textures on the same stem, and when the tree was attacked, it was on the rough surfaces,” Ferrenberg says. “We thought the beetles were either choosing to avoid the smooth surface, or they just couldn’t hang onto it.”

The results — especially when combined with the findings of a second study also recently published by the research team — provide information that may be useful to land managers who are trying to keep public parks and other relatively small forested areas healthy.

The research suggests that when culling properties to resist the mountain pine beetle, land managers should consider cutting down older trees. Fire management usually suggests cutting the small trees, but this may not be the best strategy for defending against the beetle.

Another study published in the journal Oecologia by Humboldt State University in California found that lodgepole and limber pines that survived more mountain pine beetle attacks had more resin ducts than trees that were killed. Generally, younger trees had more resin ducts.

However, another type of pine that is under attack by the mountain pine beetle has little to no ability — at any age — to use the strategy of pushing out resin to flush beetles out. It’s the whitebark pine and it’s an important foundation and keystone species in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem for a number of reasons.

The whitebark pine lives at high elevations where mountain pine beetles were killed by harsh winters until winters started getting warmer. Unlike lodgepole pine, whitebark pine produces little or no resin, leaving it with fewer natural defenses against the beetle. So we’re giving it a boost. American Forests has been placing pheromone patches on healthy whitebark pines to repel the beetles. You can help by donating to our Endangered Western Forests initiative or by emailing volunteers@americanforests.org to learn about opportunities to help attach patches to trees in the Greater Yellowstone area.


2013′s Top 13

by Loose Leaf Contributor

Today, 2013 comes to an end. Many have said that 13 is an unlucky number, but 2013 hasn’t been all unlucky. After all, it was the year of our 45 millionth Global ReLeaf tree in the ground, a comeback for Siberian tigers, the launch of our Community ReLeaf program and good news for the Kirtland’s warbler. So, before heading into 2014, we’re taking this last chance to embrace the number 13. Here are the 13 Loose Leaf posts of 2013 that you — our readers — enjoyed the most. Thanks for reading! Please join us again in 2014!

13. “Saving a Little, Getting a Lot”

We learned that by protecting just 17 percent of the world’s land, we can preserve 67 percent of plant species.

12. “Following in the Footsteps of Johnny Appleseed”

Lush forest.

Lush forest. Credit: Sam Agnew

We celebrated Johnny Appleseed’s birthday with a look at some of the fruit trees American Forests is planting around the world to help communities. We think Johnny would have approved.

11. “Self-Healing for Forests”

A study found that through nitrogen-fixation, forests can help themselves heal faster from agricultural use.

10. “Celebrating Simplicity”

Sometimes you just need a little simplicity. That’s where nature can come in. Or, some beautiful prose. On the birthday of American author and naturalist Henry David Thoreau, we took some time to enjoy both.

Amur tiger and cub

Amur tiger and cub. Credit: digitalART2/Flickr

9. “Tigers’ Welcome Return”

A new report brought tidings of a recovery of tigers in a few key Asian ecosystems, one of which was very familiar to American Forests: the Siberian forests where trees we helped plant a decade ago in “Trees for Tigers” are now maturing.

8. “The People’s Tree”

This year’s Capitol Christmas Tree came from Colville National Forest in northeastern Washington. It’s quite a different tradition from that of the National Christmas Tree, which has been a live tree throughout most of its history ever since American Forests donated the first live tree in ___

7. “The Majestic Sugar Maple”

Everyone has a favorite tree, but when we posted this homage to an incredible species, it was clear that for many of you, the sugar maple holds that spot.

Old-growth hemlock within Snyder-Middleswarth Natural Area of Bald Eagle State Forest, Penn

Old-growth hemlock within Snyder-Middleswarth Natural Area of Bald Eagle State Forest, Penn. Credit: Nicholas A. Tonelli

6. “Monarchs on the Mind”

2013 has been a rough year for monarchs and people are taking note.

5. “105 Years of Zion National Park”

Everyone loves a national park, and Zion National Park has a lot to love.

4. “The Importance of Big, Old Trees”

Science Advisory Board member Dr. Jerry Franklin sat down with Loose Leaf to discuss what large, old trees provide ecosystems that younger growth just can’t make up for.

3. “Sequoia National Park Celebrates Its Birthday Today”

Okay, many of you joined us in wishing Zion a happy birthday, but Sequoia National Park — and the world’s largest trees that live within it — seem to have captured even more hearts, at least among readers here on Loose Leaf.

2. “It’s World Animal Day”

We celebrate animals every day at American Forests, with restoration projects around the world that benefit wildlife by restoring habitat and connecting fragmented habitat. But it’s always nice to take some time out on World Animal Day to reflect on the species we share the forests with.

Monarch on milkweed

Monarch on milkweed. Credit: s3728/Flickr

And the most popular Loose Leaf story of 2013…

1. “Giving Butterflies a Boost” September 11, 2013

…takes us back to the monarchs of Michoacán — and reveals the organized crime that has had a hand in reducing the monarchs’ numbers until the world’s population of fit into an area smaller than four football fields.

Here’s hoping that in 2014 and the years beyond, we’ll see better news for the monarchs, tigers, sugar maples and all the other species that we’re working to protect. But we can do more than just hope — and you can help. We’re planting trees to restore habitat for endangered species, urging Congress to proactively address threats to our forests and providing communities with the tools to help manage their vital urban forests. Please give us a hand.


Every Leaf a Miracle

by Loose Leaf Contributor

Throughout December, we’ve enjoyed looking back at the year’s International Society of Arboriculture True Professionals — arborists who go above and beyond the call of duty to bring arboriculture to the community. Rounding out the list of 2013’s True Professionals is Edward Milhous, ISA Certified Arborist and Consultant and Owner of TreesPlease in Haymarket, Va.

 

“I have an appreciation for the intangible rewards that come from helping people.”

Edward Milhous

Credit: Edward Milhous and ISA

Ed Milhous is a True Professional of Arboriculture who freely gives of his time to support developing arborists in their careers. A long-time supporter of continuing education, Milhous has spent the past quarter-century promoting arboriculture to future professionals by teaching and speaking at various camps, seminars and events in conjunction with the Mid-Altlantic branch of ISA (MAC-ISA). In addition, as the owner of his consulting firm, TreesPlease® in Haymarket, Va., Milhous has enjoyed an outstanding reputation with consumers and arborists for helping people solve their plant problems.

“I take every opportunity to speak to groups about trees, and I believe that has been a factor in building a successful consulting practice,” Milhous contends. “The Day of Arboriculture we present to students in forestry and horticulture at Virginia Tech each year has reached more than 500 students since its inception.

“I know that these MAC-ISA sponsored programs have recruited a significant number of students into arboriculture, and some of them are among our chapter leaders today. Preparing others to take this profession further is of critical importance to me.”

Milhous has left an indelible footprint so far. Among the projects in his body of work is Evans Farm, a development in McLean, Va., where he inventoried more than 400 significant trees on the site for preservation. He’s consulted on several iconic properties in the D.C. area, conducting a complete tree inventory at the U.S. Naval Academy and the Jefferson Memorial, and consulting with the Architect of the Capitol about Capitol Hill trees. Milhous was also part of a team of extension agents and volunteers who organized the first Master Gardener programs in Virginia and Washington, D.C.

Edward Milhous

Credit: Edward Milhous and ISA

“We had no resources, but still had to publish our own manual for the program, so each volunteer and each agent wrote a chapter,” Milhous remembers. “Our first class included more than 100 people. Now, 33 years later, we have more than 30,000 volunteers trained in horticulture and they provide more than 100,000 hours of community service each year in Virginia alone. In fact, I still teach a class each year.”

While Milhous works tirelessly to promote education at every level, most of his work is in tree preservation. He does what he can to enable research and teach the public the value of a certified arborist.

“On almost a daily basis, I promote using an ISA Certified Arborist to my clients,” Milhous explains. “I tell them the single-most reliable way to ensure that you get work done properly is to require that the person doing the work is certified. It’s always nice if the salesperson knows what he is doing, but it’s unlikely that he will be the one doing the work. I want the person up in the tree to be certified.”

When asked what it means to be a True Professional of Arboriculture, Milhous believes it is someone who recognizes when there’s a need to learn more and wants to keep on learning. “A True Professional promotes his profession as much as his own business. He wants to bring the competition up to his level rather than just beat them on a bid. A True Professional takes pride in the work done, and would rather walk away from a job than do something that isn’t right.”—Ed Milhous and ISA

 

Did you miss reading about the other True Professionals of 2013? You can find them all here on Loose Leaf:

Terrill Collier
Richard Herfurth
Scott Liudahl
Jim McCready

 


Community ReLeaf in Action

by Loose Leaf Team

By Maria Harwood

Community ReLeaf in Asbury Park

Ready to plant in Asbury Park, N.J. Credit: American Forests

This fall, we ventured out into the communities of our five 2013 Community ReLeaf project cities and rolled up our sleeves for some hard work! Thanks to the support of our project partners, Bank of America and the U.S. Forest Service along with 169 local community volunteers, we were able to put 175 trees in the ground, enhancing urban forests across the country.

In addition to the tree plantings, assessments of the urban forests in our project cities were performed to analyze different aspects of the canopy cover and benefits to the local communities realized from investments in urban trees. The results so far speak volumes about the importance of urban forests in our communities:

In Asbury Park, N.J., a coastal city impacted by Hurricane Sandy in 2012, some major trees were lost during the storm, but the overall canopy cover hasn’t suffered a significant change. Tree canopy covers approximately 22 percent of Asbury Park’s 1.5 square miles. The city’s trees provide more than half a million dollars’ worth of benefits annually in filtration of air and water pollution alone. These services also provide a vital link to lessening the impact of stormwater on the city infrastructure following large storms.

Work in Detroit, Mich., was focused in River Rouge Park, the city’s largest park. Collectively, the 1,184-acre park and its 140,000 trees contribute $2.84 million in benefits by filtering air pollution, sequestering carbon and controlling rainwater. If lost, replacing the entire urban forest in this park alone would cost $84 million.

Community ReLeaf in Detroit's Rouge River Park.

Community ReLeaf in Detroit’s River Rouge Park. Credit: American Forests

In East Nashville, Tenn., an assessment was conducted looking specifically at the street trees that comprise its urban forest. It was found that these 11,130 trees provide shade for about 12 percent of all the streets and sidewalks. These street trees provide over $1 million in cumulative benefits annually. That is, for every dollar invested in the trees, the community receives $6.91 in benefits.

Pasadena, Calif., also had an analysis conducted on its 58,267 street trees, which provide over $8 million in cumulative benefits each year, including over $1 million in air quality benefits. Overall, the street trees shade around 27 percent of streets and sidewalks.

The assessment in Atlanta, Ga., is still underway, but the report is looking at the urban forests surrounding schools like Price Middle School, where we planted trees in November, to determine the amount of benefit afforded to students from their natural environment.

It’s been a busy year with the kickoff of the Community ReLeaf program in these five cities around the U.S. We have already studied urban canopies and added 175 trees to urban forests around the country, but more work is yet to come! Keep an eye out for the detailed results from each city, coming soon.


The Wilderness Compromise of S. 37 and Senator John Tester

by Alison Share, Environmental Public Policy Associate, Crowell & Moring LLP

While much of the media followed the ever-shifting tea leaves during the budget negotiations between Senator Patty Murray and Representative Paul Ryan, the background tug-of-war over wilderness protections continued this month. Two separate actions, a Senate bill sponsored by Senator John Tester (D-MT) and a statement of policy from the pro-logging group Federal Forest Resource Coalition, highlighted the spectrum of opinion among logging industry, ranchers, outdoor enthusiasts and conservationists.

Montana’s Snowcrest Mountains

Montana’s Snowcrest Mountains. Credit: SeattleRay/Flickr

Sen. Tester’s bill, S. 37 — the Forest Jobs and Recreation Act of 2013, mandates specific amounts of logging on national forest land while designating over 600,000 acres of wilderness. With its compromise between utility of forests and preservation of wild areas, the bill won the support of a variety of different interest groups, including livestock interests and several local wilderness associations. One important juncture in garnering the multi-interest support was the treatment of 20,000 acres in the Snowcrest Mountains that were originally designated as potential wilderness. Following conversations between livestock and wilderness organizations, those 20,000 acres were dropped from consideration. Local ranchers graze cattle on those acres in the summertime and needed access to repair stock tanks and other ranching infrastructure. The acreage will instead be designated a special management area, leaving its wilderness quality while allowing ranchers much-needed access. That compromise gained S. 37 support from otherwise opposing factions, with an additional amendment to allow snowmobile access to Mt. Jefferson winning the isolated praise of fellow western Senator Jim Risch (R-ID).

With its compromises and amendments, the bill passed out of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee last week and heads to the Senate floor in the new year. It will, however, face stiff headwinds from Republican senators who believe it does not do enough to promote timber harvests. The bill is also opposed by some Montana conservation groups due to the original proposed 677,000 acres of wilderness dropping to about 640,000. Even should S. 37 be passed by the Senate, it will have a tough time passing through the House of Representatives, with the Republican-controlled body generally opposed to wilderness protection bills.

Yet for all of the imperfections of S. 37, depending on your point of view, it is a working demonstration that compromise is possible between even longtime opposing groups. The other side of the coin is the recent policy statement released by the Federal Forest Resource Coalition (“Coalition”). The Coalition is a trade group that represents 650 wood products companies, so access to forests for logging is a high priority for many of the group’s members. According to the Coalition’s policy statement, 28 percent of national forest lands are suitable for logging. Congress should designate no new wilderness until the management of those national forest acres reflect priority for timber production. In addition to shifting the focus of that 28 percent of forests, the Coalition also pushes for a streamlined environmental review process under — yes, it is back — the National Environmental Policy Act. The policy statement also pushes for wilderness areas to not: be oddly shaped or isolated tracts, be in Alaska or block access to logging areas. And any proposed new designations should have to carry the support of the local House delegation and both senators.

It seems unnecessary to state that conservation groups think the Coalition’s statement is less that of policy and more a list of demands. But here is the take-away: It’s easy for parties on either side of this issue to publish a policy statement, which conveniently avoids the unnecessary burden of compromise required to enact legislation.

Policy statements from all interest groups are designed specifically to shift political thought while it is legislation that actually creates the policy. Policy statements can be as strident as groups wish them to be, but it is compromise, demonstrated by S. 37 and the ultimate Murray-Ryan budget plan, that actually moves policy forward.


The Town Arborist

by Loose Leaf Contributor

This week’s 2013 ISA True Professional of Arboriculture is Jim McCready of Carleton Place, Ontario — ISA Certified Arborist, Registered Professional Forester, Owner of McCready Tree & Forestry Consulting and Program Forester for Tree Canada

 

Jim McCready

Credit: Jim McCready / ISA

Not long after a major ice storm hammered Eastern Ontario, Canada, in 1998, government funding became available to help communities repair extensive damage to trees. But Jim McCready recalls there was an obstacle for some of the smaller communities. They didn’t have the expertise to put together plans and apply for funding. So, McCready assisted these communities by doing the inventories and preparing the applications. The money to care for the urban canopies eventually came to the three small-town communities had taken under his wing.

“One of the communities was my hometown of Carleton Place,” McCready remembers. “It received more than $180,000 to trim, remove and plant trees to replace those that were lost. As a result of the trimming, far less was spent on future cleanup after major storms.”

Those who know him best say this is quintessential Jim McCready, an under-the-radar type of guy who gives an extraordinary amount to people and trees. He may be retired following 28 years with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, but McCready is still a registered professional forester and ISA Certified Arborist who shapes the landscape of Eastern Ontario through his many volunteer efforts. In Carleton Place, McCready is known as the “Town Arborist.”

“I call it ‘small-town Ontario,’ where these communities don’t have the trained staff in arboriculture or the funds to hire anyone,” McCready explains. “As a result, it falls on dedicated volunteers like me with the background to make sure the trees are properly cared for. I am qualified so I can contribute to the community when they ask for help.”

McCready’s interest in urban forestry began in the early 1970s as a student at the University of Toronto. He was enrolled in a “Faculty of Forestry” class, which offered more than just traditional logging and silviculture courses.

Jim McCready at work

Credit: Jim McCready / ISA

“At the time, Dr. Eric Jorgensen — a man who defined the term ‘urban forestry’ — was teaching classes at the university,” McCready recalls. “So over the four years, I took full advantage of what Eric Jorgensen offered. I was extremely interested in the management of individual trees and parks in the urban setting. Jorgensen’s classes were well-attended. He engaged us with the concept later called Urban Forestry.”

McCready is the president of the Eastern Ontario Model Forest and also chair of the Regional Forest Health Network, a committee of agencies and partners promoting a sustainable forest while trying to control invasive pest species. Predictably, emerald ash borer has been at the top of their agenda for the past five years.

“With EAB in Ottawa, we came up with an urban messaging strategy for other towns and cities in our area,” McCready explains. “With help from the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and the Eastern Ontario Model Forest, we’ve developed messaging for rural landowners on how to manage their woodlots.

Through continuing education and as a steadfast volunteer, McCready wants to ensure that anyone interested can learn more about trees. Even late in his career, McCready pursued his ISA Certification as an example to others that the achievement is well worth the effort.

“Small town Ontario is not aware of urban forestry or sound arboriculture practices. ISA’s message — the promotion of good arboriculture practices for urban trees and urban forestry across the landscape — is well known in the larger cities with forestry departments. No matter what the size of the community, we need to take time to guide small-town communities in the right direction.”—Jim McCready and ISA

 

Join us again next Monday as we wrap up our series on 2013’s True Professionals of Arboriculture with another arborist giving his time to mentor future tree care professionals.

Catch up with the True Professionals of 2013 featured throughout December:

Terrill Collier
Richard Herfurth
Scott Liudahl


Christmas Tree Diseases Hit Home

by Loose Leaf Team

By Lisa Swann

Some of you may have brought a perfect, green Christmas tree home by now, but consider the fate of some Leyland cypress and Frasier firs that could not be sold this year.

Needle blight, which turns Leyland cypress trees’ needles brown, has been impacting many growers. After the needles turn brown, they fall off. Some farmers found they have fewer of their best-selling trees to sell this year.

Frasier fir with root rot.

Frasier fir with root rot. Credit: Linda Haugen, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

Jim Butler, owner of Homestead Christmas Tree Farm in Hampton, Ga., tells NPR in Atlanta, “It’s been going on now for quite a few years, and we’ve tried many things to control it. It’ll go away on its own, and anytime we have a wet summer it seems to come back.”

Very few of Butler’s trees got needle blight this year, but he says he knows some tree farms in Georgia that are completely brown. Rather than killing the tree, needle blight makes them unsellable.

Frasier firs are also having a problem with root rot (Phytophthora). The root rot also seems to be brought on by unusually large amounts of rain.

Each year, 30 to 35 million American families purchase a fresh, farm-grown Christmas tree. Some 7 million trees are harvested in Oregon and 3 million in North Carolina. John Frampton, a Christmas tree geneticist at North Carolina State University, tells ABC news, “The organism that causes this disease was introduced in the 1900s, we think, so it’s been with the industry ever since it started in North Carolina in the 1950s and 60s.”

The Associated Press reports that until root rot is contained, North Carolina famers could suffer Christmas tree losses of up to $6 million per year, while Oregon’s Christmas tree industry could lose up to $304 million per year.

To try to contain the disease, farmers are growing other fir species that are resistant to root rot. Geneticists like Frampton are grafting Frasier fir into the roots of a resistant fir species and conducting studies to locate the genes within Turkish fir that cause resistance with the hope that they could be transferred to the Frasier fir.

Many Christmas trees, including Frasier fir and Leyland cypress are still healthy, so for those belated in selecting a tree, rest assured you can still find one.

 

More on Christmas trees from Loose Leaf:

From Tinsel to Mulch — How to recycle your Christmas tree
O Christmas Tree! — Learn about the history of American Forests and the National Christmas Tree
Deck the Halls — Why live trees are usually the more environmentally friendly choice


Moose in the Mire: Part II

by Susan Laszewski

Yesterday I wrote about the alarming decline of moose populations in the Northeast, especially in Vermont and New Hampshire. There, though many factors may be at play, winter ticks seem to be a primary culprit.

But the Northeast is not alone in watching their moose populations decline. It’s been happening across North America, though the causes differ from area to area…or do they?

Moose and calf in British Columbia.

Moose and calf in British Columbia. Credit: Arthur Chapman

In British Columbia, a report from Wildlife Infometrics Inc commissioned by the provincial government has laid a lot of the blame for the declining moose population on another tiny terror: the mountain pine beetle. The current epidemic of these beetles throughout much of the Mountain West has decimated forests of whitebark and lodgepole pine. The loss of lodgepole forests in the Caribou Mountains has deprived moose of their vital forest cover leaving them more exposed to predators and unregulated hunting, while the clearing of much of the dead lodgepole has led to the creation of more logging roads, bringing even more unregulated hunting into the area.

But are these causes really so different? These ecosystems both have natural defenses against these little critters. The real culprit here is what lies behind the sudden inability of those defenses to keep up with these threats: climate change. While the winter tick in the Northeast is surviving at a higher rate due to a decrease in snow cover, the mountain pine beetle population is soaring out of control largely due to warmer winters.

In fact, the beetle is even populating areas that were previously too cold for it — high elevation whitebark pine forests in places like the Greater Yellowstone Area, where American Forests is working to combat it. We’ve been working with volunteers to attach pheromone patches to certain whitebark pine trees to repel the beetles.

The mountain pine beetle epidemic is affecting so many species in these areas, from grizzlies to Clark’s nutcrackers. Add moose to the list.


Moose in the Mire: Part I

by Susan Laszewski

The fur loss on this young moose on Mount Washington in New Hampshire could be a result of his efforts to rid himself of ticks. Credit: Ernie Mills Photography / Mt. Washington Auto Road.

In my home state of Vermont, moose sightings were a regular part of my childhood, but for today’s children they might be a rare treat. Just since 2005, the state’s moose population has nearly halved. Next door neighbor New Hampshire has seen their moose population decline by a third in recent years.

The most likely suspect? Winter ticks. The declines in moose seem to go hand in hand in with surges of the ticks. But what would cause the tick population to surge? Warmer winters, for one thing. The ticks die when they drop from their elaphine host onto the snow. But when the ground is bare, they live to reproduce. Moose are not social animals like deer; they lack the grooming practices to keep the ticks in check. And if you’ve ever had a pet with a tick, you know what a pain the little buggers can be. In their efforts to be rid of the pain and irritation of the ticks, moose often end up tearing out their own fur. That is, the fur that is one of their most important adaptations for the harsh winter climates they call home. The conclusion of this horrible chain of events is that the moose — that symbol of snowy, northern lands so well adapted to the cold — can actually die of hypothermia.

New Hampshire has already cut the number of moose hunting licenses in half in an effort to counterbalance the population decline. In the long term, though, one way to help combat these sad stories is to combat the rapid climate change that nature is unable to keep pace with. It’s one of the reasons American Forests works so hard to protect and restore forests, one of our planet’s important carbon sinks. Our Global ReLeaf projects in northern New England have included our Riparian Tree Planting in Vermont’s Green Mountain Forest, where we’re partnering with the U.S. Forest Service and local volunteers to plant 4,000 trees.

The northeast is not the only area suffering from a decline in moose populations. And while climate change is a driver of this decline across North America, its effects take many forms. Visit us here on Loose Leaf tomorrow to for Part II of what’s hurting moose in other parts of the continent.