Happy Birthday, Yellowstone!

by Katrina Marland

The Old Faithful geyser (Credit: Flicka)

Here in the U.S., we are lucky to have some truly outstanding natural places protected for our enjoyment and education. We have no fewer than 155 national forests that encompass millions of acres and 58 national parks. But one place in particular set things in motion and created a precedent for the wealth of protected wild places that we enjoy today. That place is Yellowstone National Park, officially established on this day exactly 140 years ago.

At the time — it was 1872, for those who haven’t done the math — not everyone thought it was a good idea to close off such a large area to any type of development, no matter what remarkable natural features it possessed. Thanks to testimony from explorers, researchers, photographers, painters and yes, one or two suggestions that tourism could help the local economy, Congress formed the Act of Dedication, which set the park aside exclusively “for the benefit and enjoyment of the people.” When then-President Ulysses S. Grant signed the act into law, he created the world’s very first national park. And what a remarkable place one signature has managed to preserve.

Yellowstone's Grand Canyon (Credit: Mila Zinkova)

Yellowstone’s geography, long history and multiple ecosystems have provided it with more variety than most modern-day theme parks. It has mountains, subalpine forests, petrified forests, lakes, geysers, historic sites, canyons, hot springs, archeological digs and even a supervolcano — the largest one in North America. Just a couple of the highlights include:

Yellowstone Lake: This 132-square-mile lake sits at 7,733 feet above sea level, making it the largest high-elevation lake on the continent. It is a beautiful place for boating and angling and is a hotspot for researchers attempting to learn more about the park’s formation. It also sits atop a technically still-active supervolcano.

Grand Canyon of Yellowstone: Not quite the size of its southern counterpart, this chasm is nonetheless impressive, at roughly 20 miles long, 1,500-4,000 feet wide and 800-1,200 feet deep.

Wildlife: The park’s varied ecosystems and its protected status make it a haven for wildlife species of all kinds. The park is home to grizzly bears, grey wolves, elk, lynx, 330 species of birds and the largest public herd of American bison in the U.S.

Yellowstone Lake (Credit: Acroterion)

Old Faithful: Yellowstone actually holds almost 60 percent of all the geysers in the world, and this one is arguably the most famous. As its name suggests, it shoots thousands of gallons of boiling water more than 100 feet into the air at regular intervals. You can even see this phenomenon yourself on the park’s live webcam.

Of course, the park is also one of the best places in the country to hike, bike, camp, fish, boat, picnic and just about anything else you could hope to do to enjoy the outdoors. It seems fitting that, 140 years later, the first place in the U.S. to be granted such unprecedented protection is still one of the most beloved — and has paved the way for hundreds more like it.


Up to the Task

by Amanda Tai

Credit: Garden State Hiker/Flickr

March is just around the corner, and for many college students, that means spring break. The first thing that may come to mind is a beach in the Caribbean or backpacking in Europe, but there are plenty of domestic, outdoor vacation destinations that can be just as exciting. Why not go hiking in one of our nation’s great forests or check out a wildlife refuge?

The president and the administration encourage you to do so. Outdoor recreation remains a top priority for them, from instilling healthy habits in kids to boosting spending figures from international tourism. America’s Great Outdoors Initiative, for example, has set a recreational and conservation agenda to reconnect Americans with the outdoors.

Last month, the Obama Administration released an Executive Order to accomplish two objectives that will improve travel and tourism in the U.S. The first objective is to improve visa and foreign visitor processing. The second objective is to form a task force to promote domestic and international travel opportunities in the U.S. and to boost the U.S. position in the global tourism market. The International Trade Administration (ITA) has been put in charge of forming the Task Force on Travel and Competitiveness to establish a National Travel and Tourism Strategy.

The ITA recently had a public comment period to accept suggestions for the National Travel and Tourism Strategy. American Forests submitted comments, advising that the strategy promote outdoor recreation opportunities and support federal programs that fund outdoor recreation opportunities; like the National Park Service’s Rivers, Trails, and Conservation Assistance Program and the Land and Water Conservation Fund. The U.S. has a vast array of outdoor recreation opportunities that could be a great benefit to the travel and tourism market, and it’s important that they get the funding they need.

So the next time you think about taking a vacation, consider the numerous opportunities that outdoor recreation has to offer. You’ll be having fun while you also support local communities and recreation programs.


Take a Leap

by Michelle Werts
Clocks

Credit: psyberartist/Flickr

Time is a fickle mistress. It’s supposed to be the one constant in life, right? It just ticks on second after second … except twice a year when we lose or gain an hour … and every four years when we all of sudden get an extra 24 hours in the form of Leap Day.

Of course, there’s an easy scientific explanation behind the appearance of February 29th on calendars every four years: It takes Earth 365 and a quarter days to make its way around the sun. To help our poor brains, instead of celebrating that quarter day each year, we celebrate a full day every four years. Hence, Leap Day. Easy peasy.

In honor of our extra 24 hours tomorrow, I thought it might be interesting to see what all will happen in that 24 hours:

On Leap Day, you can make a difference by making a tax-deductible contribution to American Forests in support of our work protecting and restoring our forests, which clean our air and water and provide safe habitat for millions of animals. What better way to give back on your bonus day this year?


Getting the Dirt on Forests

by Katrina Marland

The forest floor (Credit: Jan Vanaverbeke)

There’s a lot we still don’t know about climate change, but one thing we do know is that forests are a vital piece of the puzzle. Forests are so intertwined with carbon, and carbon with climate, that there is no denying the role forests play in slowing climate change and addressing its effects. Despite the complexities of that relationship, in my mind, it always comes back to the simple fact that trees absorb CO2 and store carbon. Now, a researcher is suggesting that one of the most important pieces of the puzzle is found in a forest, but it isn’t the trees: It’s the soil.

Justin Whisenant, a senior student researcher at Texas A&M University, says that while so many focus on the role of carbon in the air and the trees, its role in the soil is often overlooked. Yet, much of the carbon cycle does not take place over our heads, but under our feet. In fact, his research states that a forest ecosystem stores twice as much carbon in the soil as is it does in “aboveground biomass,” meaning trees and other plants.

If you think about it, a forest floor is covered with carbon-based matter, from tree roots to dead leaves and fallen tree limbs. It decomposes, and the carbon remains in the soil. Then, microbes in the soil continue to decompose the matter, and in the process, they release the stored carbon back into the atmosphere — a process known as microbial respiration. Whisenant’s research explores ways to influence that process and perhaps expand a forest’s ability to store carbon.

His research involved two months of testing soil samples from different stands of a loblolly pine forest in Florida. Each testing area was treated with differing levels of nitrogen and phosphorous, both common ingredients in fertilizers. Whisenant’s tests showed that both substances, particularly nitrogen, slow the rate of microbial respiration, which leaves more carbon stored in the soil.

Nitrogen, testing, microbes: What does it all mean? The findings suggest that certain common methods of forest management — such as using fertilizer — could help increase a forest’s carbon-storage capacity. And since many forests that border urban areas already receive larger levels of nitrogen due to various emissions, they may already be storing increased levels of carbon — a natural reaction that could prove important as CO2 levels in the atmosphere continue to grow.


Freezing for Maple Syrup

by Michelle Werts

Have you loved this year’s unseasonable warm winter? Yes? Well, I have another question for you: Is that happiness worth the loss of maple syrup on your pancakes and waffles?

Trees being tapped for maple sap in New York

Trees being tapped for maple sap, Beaver Meadow Audobon Center, New York. Credit: Dave Pape (dpape)/Flickr

While snow and freezing temperatures are cumbersome for us humanoids, they’re essential for maple-syrup producers across the country. In fact, without freezes, we’d be out of luck when it comes to maple syrup. You see, maple-tree sap only flows during a short window each winter and spring, a window in which temperatures drop below freezing overnight and rise above it during the day. When temperatures rise above freezing, the flow of sap begins, and for eight to 15 hours, it will continue until eventually drying up. This is when the freeze is needed: Overnight, the sap freezes and the tree rejuvenates, so come morning’s thaw, it’s ready to flow again. Without this delicate dance, there would be no sap, and with no sap, there is no maple syrup. And once the first spring bud appears on the maple trees, the jig is up, as any sap collected then will not produce the tasty syrup we all know and love.

Tapping for sap in Michigan

Tapping for sap in Michigan. Credit: Jim Sorbie (jsorbieus)/Flickr

As reported by the Associated Press, some maple-syrup farmers began tapping their trees in early February, nearly a month earlier than normal. And, so far, so good. But one really warm day could ruin it all, especially with hardly any snow cover to insulate the ground and keep temperatures lower in our tree-tapping forests. Therefore, let’s all hope for another month of freezing nights for our maple-syrup farmers who need to tap 40 gallons of sap to produce one gallon of syrup. Without those nightly freezes, the maple-industry across the country might suffer losses. For an industry that generates tens of millions of dollars each year (make that thousands of millions when you factor in associated business like retailers, packaging, equipment producers, etc.) and supplies about 20 percent of the world’s maple syrup, that wouldn’t be a good thing.


Where There’s Smoke…

by Katrina Marland

Smoke from the 2009 Tumblebug Complex Fire in Oregon (Credit: USDA Forest Service)

You don’t have to be a genius to know that wildfires can be very harmful. But we usually think of that damage as being contained to the forest or other areas physically touched by the fires. In reality, the consequences of a wildfire spread far beyond the reach of the flames. Effects of wildfires can be found in the soil, the watershed, the populations of flora and fauna, and more. A new study is helping to quantify that damage in a different, rather more disturbing way.

Led by Fay Johnston of the University of Tasmania, a global team of researchers presented a new study at the 2012 annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Their research concludes that the smoke from “landscape fires” — which include wildfires, controlled burns and peat fires — contributed to an average of 339,000 deaths per year from 1997 to 2006. Smoke carries many types of pollutants and makes them easy for people to inhale. This study focused on the impacts of fine particulate matter: tiny particles (2.5 micrometers) that can be inhaled and make their way into sinuses, throats, lungs and bloodstreams. Particulate matter can cause heart attacks, decreased lung function, asthma attacks and a number of other serious problems. It is especially dangerous to the elderly, young children and those with lung or heart conditions.

According to the study, the highest losses were in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, with both regions reaching well more than 100,000 smoke-related deaths per year. The team reached these conclusions by analyzing data from a variety of sources, including satellite data of regions prone to such fires and statistics from the World Health Organization. This study is said to be the first of its kind; while others have studied the effects of fires and smoke, none have focused on estimating the resulting death toll. As climate change continues, scientists agree that the world is likely to see more wildfires, which will mean greater risk to forests and to people.

There is some encouraging news, however. At the same meeting of the AAAS, researcher Michael Brauer of the University of British Columbia presented his own findings: Satellite images, methods of measuring air quality and certain computer models can help keep people, governments and public health officials aware of what areas are most at risk for smoke and what they can do to keep safe. Along with the BC Centre for Disease Control, Brauer is working to find a method of forecasting smoke — predicting where the fires will occur, where the smoke from those fires will drift and what impact it is likely to have on local populations.

As sobering as these new statistics are, it’s reassuring to know that as we continue to learn more about the full impact of fires, scientists are already adapting to the new information to develop ways to preserve life.


Sharing Is Caring

by Amanda Tai

Credit: Wayne National Forest/Flickr

Children are taught that sharing is a good thing, but what if the thing you’re sharing is really complex and you’re trying to share it with a lot of people? That’s what the federal budget feels like to me. Since President Obama released the fiscal year 2013 budget last week, Capitol Hill has been abuzz with hearing after hearing to examine the proposed figures. With anticipated cuts across the board, agencies are preparing to operate under even tighter budgets. Running a government agency with fewer dollars sounds like a daunting task, but leave it to the folks at the USDA Forest Service to come up with a solution.

The Forest Service is using collaboration as the key to using their funds most efficiently. The agency plans to rearrange funding proposed in the budget to create more integrated agency efforts. By opening up Forest Service funds so that they can be applied to more programs within the agency, it will help streamline large-scale efforts such as reducing wildfire risk and integrating climate-change strategies. One example, says Forest Service chief Tom Tidwell, is to create a timber sales program alongside stewardship contracts for forest thinning. The pilot for this agency-wide cohesive strategy is called the Integrated Resource Restoration (IRR) program, and it’s already being used in three of the nine Forest Service regions.

The IRR program is also listed in a Forest Service report, released earlier this month, which outlines strategies to increase the pace of restoration work and create more jobs. It seems like a great strategy to reduce wildfire risk and provide important ecosystem services, but it may take a little longer before IRR becomes the agency norm. Congress and environmental groups are asking that more analysis be done to measure the success of the program before it goes national.


Forests Create Vibrant Cities

by Melinda Housholder, Urban Forests Program Director

“At the root of every vibrant city is an urban forest.” This simple statement from the Vibrant Cities & Urban Forests National Call to Action speaks volumes to the importance of urban forests. Especially as urbanization continues to expand throughout our country, it will become increasingly important to understand just how crucial urban forests are to creating and maintaining vibrant cities.

Chicago, Illinois

Chicago, Illinois. Credit: John Picken/Flickr

I find it fascinating that while only about three percent of the contiguous U.S. is considered urban, it is estimated that about 80 percent of our population (roughly 220 million Americans) lives in this urban area! And, over the next several years, that percentage is expected to rise. In fact, it is predicted that by 2025, urban areas in the U.S. will cover eight percent of our land — an increase to an area greater than the size of Montana.

So, what does that mean for urban forests?

For starters, urban forests will benefit more people and become increasinglyessential as our landscape changes. To fully understand the role urban forests play, we must recognize that urban areas are ecosystems, and as a part of that ecosystem, urban forests are more than just the trees. Urban forests can include the urban parks, landscaped boulevards, public gardens, river corridors, greenways (such as green spaces with bike paths or trails) and more. They play a crucial role in the city ecosystem, including storing carbon, improving water quality and flow, decreasing air pollution and enhancing the overall well-being of the human population. Urban forests can help reduce noise, contribute to economic vitality and the character of a city and, of course, make a city a more aesthetically and emotionally satisfying place to live.

The Vibrant Cities & Urban Forests National Call to Action report, which was released in fall 2011, recognizes that while past societies have often considered cities and nature distinct from one another, we are now starting to better realize and understand the inter-dependent, dynamic relationships that exist within the urban environment. Providing 12 recommendations for the future of urban forestry, the Vibrant Cities National Call to Action seeks collaborative efforts to address some of the challenges facing environmental, economic and social trends affecting the health and sustainability of our urban forests.

Who will answer the call? Here at American Forests, we’re committed to helping build support and funding for urban forests, and we hope others around the country will join in this effort to embrace our urban forests and vibrant cities. Which vibrant city has your love and support?


Remembering Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt

by Michelle Werts

On Monday, America celebrates Presidents Day, a holiday that is specifically meant to honor our nation’s first president, George Washington, who was born on February 22, 1732. But it’s also a good time to remember many of the other men who held our nation’s office. I particularly like to celebrate the man who is an icon for environment lovers everywhere: Theodore Roosevelt, aka TR and Teddy.

Mount Rushmore National Memorial, South Dakota

Mount Rushmore National Memorial, South Dakota. Credit: Vicki Watkins (jakesmome)/Flickr

When schoolchildren visit Mt. Rushmore, I’m guessing many of them have the same reaction I did: Who is that fourth guy? Which is a crying shame. Growing up, textbooks regal us with tales of our founding by Washington, Adams and Jefferson; mourn the loss of men like Lincoln and Kennedy; and remember the infamous like Jackson and Nixon, but often, everyone else gets lost in the shuffle with no major scandals, wars or conflicts to define them. Luckily, though, their legacies quietly live on and Teddy’s shines brightly.

Our 26th president took office upon President McKinley’s assassination in 1901, and he used his almost eight years in office for some major conservation activities, including designating:

  • 150 national forests
  • Five national parks
  • the first 51 federal bird reservations
  • the first 18 national monuments
  • the first four national game preserves
  • the first 21 reclamation projects

Put them all together and Roosevelt gave federal protection to almost 230 million acres across America. And he enabled dozens of presidents with the ability to follow in his footsteps with 1906’s Antiquities Act, which allowed presidents to proclaim historic landmarks and other objects of historic or scientific interest as national monuments — TR used this act to protect a large portion of the Grand Canyon before it became a national park. And these actions barely scratch the surface of the man’s impact: He was considered a leading expert on large mammals and small birds, teddy bears are named after him for his refusal to shoot a bear cub on a hunting trip, he authored dozens of books, and we haven’t even begun to touch his non-conservation activities.

Needless to say, there is a reason that a century after his presidency, he was able to garner a TIME magazine cover story, “The Making of America – Theodore Roosevelt.” So, on Monday, I’m offering a toast to the Rough Rider who led a strenuous life and saved so many of our beautiful spaces and creatures.

Curious about other environment-loving, and not so much, presidents? Check out The Daily Green’s lists of the 10 Greenest Presidents and the 10 Presidents With the Worst Environmental Records.


To Track A Killer

by Katrina Marland

The Princess Tree, introduced to the US as an ornamental, muscles out other plant species. (Credit: James Allison,Georgia Department of Natural Resources)

Species, that is. Invasive species are a big problem. They wreak havoc in our native ecosystems, result in massive losses of biodiversity and cost the U.S. billions of dollars every year. Some species are fairly obvious, such as the recently-publicized pythons in the Everglades, while others can be so subtle that you may not even notice them — only the effects they have on the ecosystem. Because some of these species can hide out so well, scientists have long been working on new ways to detect them and track them back to their source to stop the outbreak.

With today’s variety of invasive plants, insects and animals — from kudzu and zebra mussels to the emerald ash borer and the princess tree — the sheer number of invading species seems overwhelming, and it becomes harder and harder to track an outbreak back to its source where scientists can begin to fight back. But researchers at the UK’s Queen Mary’s School of Biological and Chemical Sciences have found that we can track invasive species the same way we track certain types of criminals: with geographic profiling (GP).

You may not have heard its official name before, but you probably already know what GP is, particularly if you’ve seen a few episodes of “CSI” or “Law and Order.” This type of profiling uses the locations of crimes committed, combined with knowledge of the crimes themselves, to predict where the criminal may live or operate from. The team from Queen Mary’s, whose research is published in the journal Ecology, shows that the same method can be used to find the source population of an invasive species. Not only that, but GP actually works better than other mathematical models that researchers currently use.

The Emerald Ash Borer, introduced from Asia, has killed millions of trees in the US. (Credit: Debbie Miller, USDA Forest Service)

The established methods of tracing invasive species tend to take longer to find the sources, especially in cases where there are multiple source populations, giving the species more time to establish a foothold in the ecosystem. The more source populations there are, the longer it takes the traditional methods to track them all down. Geographic profiling, on the other hand, works much faster when applied to cases of multiple source populations. In the study’s computer simulations and in working with real-life data sets on invasive species from Britain’s Biological Records Centre, the GP method traced the invaders back to their sources faster and more accurately than the other methods.

I’d never have thought that criminology and biology could have much to do with each other, but in this case, crossing two unrelated fields led to an incredibly valuable tool in  worldwide efforts to protect native ecosystems. Watch out, invasive species: We’re on to you.

Want to learn more about invasive species and how they affect native ecosystems? Or what you can do about it? Check out these articles from past issues of American Forests magazine:

“Alien Invasion!” By Carrie Madren

“Backyard Biodiversity” by Douglas Tallamy