The Important Relationship between Forests and Air

by American Forests

By Shandra FurtadoCommunications Intern

Tree in field.

Not only do trees produce oxygen, but they also improve air quality in some unexpected ways.

We’ve all heard it — we need oxygen from trees to survive. It’s the primary campaign from tree lovers around the world in our quest to save the forests. However, although oxygen is important for survival, it is not the only air quality improvement maneuver for which trees should be praised.

A lesser known, yet equally interesting, feature of trees is how they cool air through evapotranspiration. As trees transpire, they release water into the atmosphere through their leaves. As the water changes state from liquid to vapor, the surrounding air is cooled, similar to how we sweat. This effect is especially beneficial in urban areas where heat is trapped by concrete and asphalt surfaces and can make summer days unbearably hot. Especially in recent years, where global temperatures have spiked, trees can offset increased temperatures on a local scale.

Another way trees can benefit urban areas and make it easier for us to breathe is through particulate matter capture. Forests can improve public health greatly by catching dust, ash, pollen and smoke on their leaves, keeping it out of our lungs.

But, particulate matter is not the only atmospheric pollution from which trees protect us. Trees are sinks for other harmful pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides, ammonia and ozone, which can all cause respiratory problems from repeated exposure. Although ozone deflects harmful UV rays in the upper atmosphere, ground-level ozone is very dangerous and is linked to asthma. Trees are effective air filters by design, filtering out not only gasses that are harmful to humans, but also harmful to the earth’s ecosystems as a whole. Carbon dioxide is one of the most harmful greenhouse gasses, and filtering carbon dioxide out of the air is what trees do best.

urban forest

Throughout its lifetime, a tree pulls carbon dioxide from the air and turns it into sugar through photosynthesis, releasing oxygen in the process. This sugar is used to build organic matter — in the trunk, roots, leaves, branches and flowers. This accumulation acts as a carbon “sink,” which offsets accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Trees, however, cannot help us in this manner if they are left to rot or burn.

When a tree is cut down and burnt, the carbon does not just go away, butmost of the carbon the tree has captured throughout its lifetime is also released back into the air as carbon dioxide, reversing its lifetime work capturing greenhouse gasses. If trees are left behind to rot from logging, not carbon dioxide, but methane — a greenhouse gas roughly 30 times as potent as carbon dioxide — will be released into the atmosphere from decomposers.  Reckless deforestation around the world accounts for 15 percent of global emissions of these heat-trapping gasses, a dangerous level that has the potential to be lowered.

Trees are the protectors of the earth, however, it is our turn to protect them. To learn more about the relationship between forests and air, visit our Elements of Forests homepage. Help us protect our forests by joining in on the conversation using the hashtag #WeNeedForests on social media!

Preserving Our Forests: An Interview with Ryan Reynolds

by American Forests

For so many of us, being out in nature has been a transformative experience. As we continue through Earth Week, we’ve been talking about our partnership with Eddie Bauer and The One Tree Initiative, and learning why actor and activist Ryan Reynolds, Eddie Bauer’s philanthropic ambassador to our partnership of 20 years with the outdoor brand — cares about forests. Reynolds’ enjoyment of hiking, backpacking and camping, as well as his interest in protecting the forests in which he experiences those adventures, has certainly made us fans!

Watch the second installment of our video series to hear what first introduced Reynolds to the majesty of forests and why he feels the duty to protect them.

Learn more
about our partnership with Eddie Bauer and The One Tree Initiative. Plus, during Earth Week, Eddie Bauer will be matching donations made through The One Tree Initiative, giving one tree for every dollar raised, up to 75,000 trees. Donate now!

Celebrate Earth Month 2016 with American Forests and Our Partners

by American Forests

seedlingsThis Earth Month, American Forests is thrilled to highlight promotional campaigns of some of our amazing partners. By participating, you can help our partners contribute even more to our forest restoration work!

During Earth Month

  • DISH Network: During the month of April, DISH Network is encouraging customers to go paperless! For every existing customer who switches to their paperless e-bill option, DISH will plant a tree through American Forests. If you’re an existing customer, you can make the switch here.

During Earth Week

  • Eddie Bauer: From April 18 to April 24, our partner Eddie Bauer will be matching all donations made through The One Tree Initiative, up to 75,000 trees! You can donate online or by texting ONETREE to 80077 to plant five trees for $5.
  • Origins: Beginning April 16 and running through the end of the month, Origins is encouraging their customers and social media followers to share how they “kiss the planet” in efforts to help plant trees. For every social media post using #KissThePlanet and #DoGoodCampaign, as well as mentioning @OriginsUSA handle, Origins will plant a tree with American Forests, up to 25,000 trees!

On Earth Day

  • Plexus Worldwide: On Earth Day, Plexus Worldwide is partnering with American Forests to plant a tree for every product sold. To learn more about Plexus products, and to purchase via retail, visit Plexus Worldwide online or talk to a Plexus Ambassador.
  • TakePart: On Earth Day, will launch their ‘Re-tweet to Re-forest’ initiative in partnership with American Forests. For every engagement, retweet and post using the hashtag #fight4forests, TakePart will plant one tree, up to 5,000 trees, with American Forests.

The Outdoors is a Playground: An Interview with Ryan Reynolds

by American Forests

As we celebrate Earth Week, we wanted to share why actor and activist, Ryan Reynolds — who is Eddie Bauer’s philanthropic ambassador to our partnership of 20 years with the outdoor brand — has a personal connection to conservation and reforestation. When he was young, Reynolds spent time in nature — forests, rivers and mountains — that served as a transformative outdoor educational experience that turned into a lifelong love of the outdoors. This is why he chose to support our 20-year partnership with Eddie Bauer, as their philanthropic ambassador.

Watch the video to hear what Reynolds has to say about the outdoors and conservation.

Learn more
about our partnership with Eddie Bauer and The One Tree Initiative. Plus, during Earth Week, Eddie Bauer will be matching donations made through The One Tree Initiative, giving one tree for every dollar raised, up to 75,000 trees. Donate now!

Forest Digest – Week of April 11, 2016

by American Forests

Find out the latest in forestry news in this week’s Forest Digest! This week, each article corresponds to the element of earth as part of our Earth Month campaign and why #WeNeedForests.

Share your own stories with us and join our Earth Month conversation by using the hashtag #WeNeedForests on social media!

5 Wildlife Species That Need Forests and Earth

by American Forests

By Austa Somvichian-Clausen, Communications Intern

Earth is the foundation upon which any forest thrives. Without earth, seeds would not be able to receive the vital nutrients in order to grow. But, the soils of the Earth depend on forests, too — plants and decaying matter play an important role in the creation of new soil and addition of nutrients. Forests also help the earth by preventing erosion — using their roots to stabilize the ground and prevent landslides on cliffs and ridges.

The earth and forests share a vital and mutually beneficial relationship. But, there are also many wildlife species who play a role in that relationship, too and benefit from both earth and forests. Here are some of our favorites!

The Gray Fox

The gray fox builds its dens in rock formations, hollow logs and trees, burrows and brush piles. Their dens are often lined with grass and leaves. Gray fox pups are born blind and don’t venture out of their dens for about 5 weeks. During this period, the father provides food for the entire fox family.

The female (also called a vixen) may dig her den into the soil or use the burrow of another animal. This den may be up to 75 feet long, with numerous chambers used for food storage and the transfer of her young. Gray foxes are unique creatures, being the only member of the canine family with the ability to climb trees. They do so by grabbing the trunk of the tree with their forepaws and scrambling up with its claws and hind feet, in order to escape its enemies.

gray fox

Credit: regexman via Flickr.

The Gopher Tortoise

Gopher tortoises are a perfect example of an animal whose survival depends on both the earth and forests. They are dry-land turtles that live in well-drained, sandy soils in longleaf pine habitats and dry oak sandhills. Gopher tortoises are extraordinary diggers, and each tortoise will dig and use multiple burrows that can vary from 3 to 52 feet long, and 9 to 23 feet deep. Their burrows provide a home and refuge for more than 360 other species, such as black pine snakes, gopher frogs, foxes, skunks, opossums and many species of amphibians and invertebrates.

Unfortunately, gopher tortoises are threatened by significant habitat loss due to the clear-cutting of longleaf pine forests across the United States. Other threats to the gopher tortoise include habitat fragmentation and degradation. Gopher tortoises are considered a keystone species because so many other animals rely on their awesome burrowing abilities for a place to live — which makes it even more important to conserve forested land inhabited by the gopher tortoise.

gopher tortoise

Credit: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service via Flickr.

The River Otter

Another unique animal that depends on the forest and earth is the playful North American river otter. The river otter makes its den in abandoned burrows near the water’s edge and can thrive in a variety of ecosystems such as rivers, lakes, swamps and estuaries. Their burrows feature numerous tunnels and usually feature a tunnel with easy water access. Den sites include hollow logs, log jams, piles of driftwood or boulders and abandoned lodges and bank dens made by nutria or beaver. Otter pups rely on their mother to learn swimming and survival skills. Although much of their lives are spent in the water, river otters can also bound and run quite well on land.

river otter

Credit: Josh More via Flickr.

The Spruce Grouse

The spruce grouse is a funny bird with an extraordinarily nonchalant demeanor. Found commonly in the coniferous forests of the northern United States and Canada, this dark-colored, stocky bird may sit motionless while observers pass by just a few short feet away — making them easy to overlook. They are nicknamed the “Fool Hen” because of this unconcerned behavior, and on numerous occasions have been captured and, upon release, wander only several feet away before beginning to forage.

The female spruce grouse is paler than the male and is superbly camouflaged against the forest floor, where it forages for food. Spruce grouses feed mainly on the needles of pines, spruce and other coniferous trees. Their diet is comprised almost entirely of conifer needs in the winter, but at other times they also eat fresh green shoots and leaves of other plants, as well as berries, flowers, insects, snails and fungi.

spruce grouse

Credit: J.H. via Flickr.

The Gray Tree Frog

The gray tree frog needs aquatic ecosystems for breeding and inhabits all elevations of forested areas that are in, or near, permanent water such as swamps, ponds, lakes and mixed and deciduous forests. Gray tree frogs are both arboreal (tree dwelling) and terrestrial (earth dwelling). They hide in tree holes, under bark, in rotten logs, under leaves and under tree roots when inactive.

The gray tree frog plays a critical role in the food web of their ecosystems. As tadpoles, they can graze enough algae to change the community of algal species in a pond, and, as mature frogs, they can reduce local pest populations such as mosquitoes, gnats and flies. Larger animals that depend upon them as a food source include larger frogs, carnivorous birds and small mammals.

gray tree frog

Credit: Tony Falola via Flickr.

The Important Relationship between Forests and Earth

by American Forests

By Austa Somvichian-ClausenCommunications Intern

earth and mushroomsSoil, a complex and variable medium made up of mineral particles, organic matter, water, air and living organisms, is one of the most important components of a forest ecosystem.

For millions of years, soils have provided the necessary foundation for trees and entire woodland ecosystems. It helps to regulate important ecosystem processes such as nutrient uptake, decomposition and water availability. The characteristics of different soils help determine the nature of the flora and fauna that sustain the world’s biodiversity.

The relationship between soil and forests is not one-sided though; trees and other plants play a vital role in the creation of new soil as leaves and other vegetation rot and decompose on the forest floor. The earth and forests have always been intrinsically linked. The interaction between forests and soil help to ensure that the soil is fertile enough for plant life to continue to grow and flourish and makes agricultural production possible.

As the human population grows, and food demand continues to rise, we must look for more and more agricultural land to meet that demand. Some of the most viable land has already been depleted by overuse, or has fallen victim to soil acidification or desertification. As more land continues to be deforested to make room for more agricultural production, more soil is drying out and eroding. Long-term forest management practices, including measures to introduce or maintain forest cover on erosion-prone soils, will help control or reduce the risk of soil erosion and the depletion of nutrients from healthy soil.

Forests stabilize soils

The management and restoration of forests is necessary not only for fertile soil, but also to prevent and control erosion. Forests aid in the problem of erosion in a multitude of ways. By intercepting rain, a forest canopy reduces the impact of heavy rainfall on the forest floor, reducing soil disturbance and slowing the rate of water runoff into nearby water systems or fields.

Coastal forests protect coastlines by absorbing the energy and impact of storm surges, which reduces erosion and in-shore impacts. Tree roots also stabilize ridges, hills and mountain slopes as well as provide soil with the necessary structural support to prevent shallow movements of land mass. It’s been shown that landslides rarely ever occur in areas with a high forest cover.

To learn more about the relationship between forests and earth, and to join in our Earth Month conversation, visit our Elements of Forests Earth Month homepage and use the hashtag #WeNeedForests on social media!

Forest Digest – Week of April 04, 2016

by American Forests
Smokey junior


Find out the latest in forestry news in this week’s Forest Digest! This week, each article corresponds to the element of fire as part of our Earth Month campaign and why #WeNeedForests.

Share your own stories with us and join our Earth Month conversation by using the hashtag #WeNeedForests on social media!

Big Tree Madness 2016: And the Winner Is…

by American Forests

By Shandra FurtadoCommunications Intern

White basswoodCongratulations to Missouri’s white basswood, our 2016 Big Tree Madness Champion! In a match-up with first-time finalist New Hampshire and its pitch pine, Missouri won with 59 percent of the votes — the closest championship margin ever! This is Missouri’s second year in a row — and third overall — to win the championship, in the one of the biggest turnouts we’ve seen yet!

The 87-foot-tall white basswood is a native species to Missouri and sits in the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis. The tree gets its name from the whitish undersides of its leaves. White basswoods bloom in mid-summer, producing delicate, light-yellow flowers that hang in clusters, creating an atmosphere desirable for bees, butterflies and other pollinators. Not only is this majestic tree a haven for wildlife, but it’s also a beautiful addition to any area.

The Missouri Big Tree program will be receiving a TruPulse 360B from LaserTech for their win. It’s a great tool that will ease the measurement process and help collect useful data for the program.

We would like to give a big thanks to LaserTech for supplying the grand prize and to our program’s premiere sponsor, The Davey Tree Expert Company.

Once again, congratulations to Missouri, and thank you to everyone who participated in this year’s Big Tree Madness tournament!

Big Tree Madness Bracket

The Important Relationship between Forests and Fire

by American Forests

By Shandra FurtadoCommunications Intern

Controlled burn

When done in small doses, controlled burns can be beneficial to forest growth. Credit: André Bessa via Flickr.

Fire: the ultimate debate between friend and foe. Our use of fire is what makes us human, while its power of destruction drives our fears.

Since the beginning, we have had a natural urge to control and dominate fire. In the past century, however, the suppression of low-intensity natural forest fire has disturbed natural systems and allowed high-intensity megafires to run rampant.

Naturally, periodic forest fires help to clear away old brush and allow for new growth. They recycle nutrients back into the soil, disperse seeds of fire-adapted plants and burn ground cover to give seedlings a chance at light.

When allowed to burn naturally, forest fires tend to create a mosaic of old growth and new growth, which act as a barrier to the extent of future fires. When a fire hits the border between stages of growth, it is likely to smolder out.

Many trees have adaptations that allow them to survive easier in natural fire. Jack pines and giant sequoias have very thick, fire resistant bark. Most eucalyptus species and pine species utilize tall crowns in order to keep flammable leaves and dead branches high from the ground and away from fire.

Some trees are even fire dependent — such as many pine and eucalyptus trees — and only seed after a fire event when the soil is rich and there are no obstructions to sunlight in the lower canopy. During the blaze, pine cone spines act as a fire-resistant shell to protect seeds. The heat dries out the shell, causing the spines to open easily after a burn, allowing for better dispersal. Serotinous cone species, such as the Jack Pine, will only release their seeds after a fire, rather than at maturation.

These cycles of destruction and regrowth can last hundreds of year and reset after each forest fire.

The occurrence of high-intensity megafires can begin in our attempts to tame the forest through taming its fire. It continues with worsened droughts and other conditions due to climate change. An increase in severe burns tops it off, with areas of severe burns expected to increase 50 to 100 percent by 2050.

Controlled burning, or prescribed burns, can be used as a management tool for forests, helping to restore the mosaic of new and old growth, preventing future destructive megafires. Controlled burning can also help reset a sick forest, giving new seedlings opportunity to take root. While fire can be menacing, it can also be helpful to forests in unexpected ways.

To learn more about the relationship between forests and fire, and to join in our Earth Month conversation, visit our Elements of Forests Earth Month homepage and use the hastag #WeNeedForests on social media!