Forests Around the World

by Amanda Tai

Did you know that today is United Nations Day? The United Nations Charter entered into force on October 24th, 1947, replacing the League of Nations with an international organization dedicated to facilitating social, economic and environmental development and cooperative efforts. United Nations Day is dedicated to honoring the achievements of the United Nations Organization (UN), which include major milestones in efforts to protect and restore our environment.

Since its formation in 1947, the UN has developed branches dedicated to environmental work. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is known for its annual conference on sustainable development (known as UNCED or Earth Summit), the most recent being Rio+20 this past summer. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) set global climate change goals in the 1990s through the Kyoto Protocol, which established binding targets for countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.

Haitian students plant trees to restore a forest on International Environment Day, which is run by UNEP. Credit: United Nations Photo/Flickr

More recently, in 2000, the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF) was established to develop policies and provide guidelines for “the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests and to strengthen long-term political commitment to this end.” The UNFF holds an annual conference that serves as a forum for discussing international forest policy. It also gives countries the opportunity to share their developments, experiences and lessons learned on forest management. In 2006, during the seventh session of the UNFF, a multi-year strategy (2007-2015) was developed to provide guidance on the use of sustainable forest management practices. The objective of the strategy is to reforest areas that have gone through deforestation, prevent future forest degradation and better the livelihoods of people who depend on forests. The next session of the UNFF is set to take place April 8-19, 2013, in Istanbul, Turkey.

As our world seems to become smaller and smaller through faster online communication and a continually growing global economy, I think it’s encouraging that environmental policy is following in those same footsteps. International forums like the UNFF provide a space for forest policy experts to share with and learn from each other in ways that continue to benefit forests worldwide.


Tales of the Forests – 3,000 Years Ago

by Alison Share, Environmental Public Policy Associate, Crowell & Moring LLP
Danube Delta

Danube Delta. Credit: Austin Donisan/Flickr

There was some legal news this month in the world of the seemingly never-ending litigation concerning the Roadless Rule. The United States Supreme Court declined to review the Roadless Rule ruling (try saying that five times fast) from the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals. If you aren’t familiar with how the appeals process works, never fear, most people aren’t. In the federal court system, the first level of decision-making is done by the district courts, aka the trial courts. If the losing party wants to, it may, within a certain time frame, appeal to the circuit court. There are 13 circuit courts in the United States: 1st-11th Circuits, the D.C. Circuit and the Federal Circuit. Each of these circuit courts covers specific states: the 10th Circuit covers Utah, Wyoming, Oklahoma, Colorado, New Mexico and Kansas. It is the decision of the appellate court that can be reviewed by the United States Supreme Court.

Earlier this month, in somewhat anticlimactic fashion, the Supreme Court declined to review the 10th Circuit decision that upheld the Roadless Rule. By deciding not to review the case, the Supreme Court let stand the 10th Circuit decision upholding the Roadless Rule. The rule, originally formulated at the end of the Clinton administration, limits road construction and timber harvesting on more than 58 million acres of currently undeveloped national forest land. With this decision by the Supreme Court, the only ongoing litigation concerning the Roadless Rule is a case filed by the state of Alaska concerning Tongass National Forest. It is currently pending in federal court in D.C.

Danube Delta

Danube Delta. Credit: Sergiu Biris/Flickr

Danube Delta

Danube Delta. Credit: Sergiu Luchian/Flickr

The Roadless Rule is designed to protect undeveloped forestland from logging and road building — activities that humans have carried out for thousands of years. Before I began my legal career, I worked at a college in Ohio, where I had the opportunity to take a number of geology courses. Those courses, coupled with my passion for history, triggered my interest in a recent report on Scientific Reports about such an undeveloped forest.

While current forest rules can be subject to the ebb and flow of administrative action and litigation outcomes, it was recently discovered that the rich ecosystem that exists in the Danube Delta of eastern Europe has its origins in deforestation that occurred 3,000 years ago. The Danube Delta, which exists where the freshwater river flows into the Black Sea, is home to countless species existing in 23 different ecosystems. Scientists recently explored the beginning of the Delta by analyzing the sediment that has built up over the years. And among the diatoms and dinoflagellates (and people say legalese is obtuse!), scientists discovered a marked increase in sediment loads between 2,000-3,000 years ago.

This sediment load increase was linked to large-scale deforestation that occurred farther up the Danube watershed. Scientists determined that by the height of the Roman Empire, approximately 2,000 years ago, large portions of Serbia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria had already undergone significant clearing in order cultivate land for crops. Over time, this deforestation led to increased sediment runoff, which travelled down to settle at the intersection of the Danube and the Black Sea. The sediment build up was key in the development of the area’s marshes and wetlands, developing into the varied ecosystems that exist today. By studying the chemical make-up of these sediments, scientists were able to discover periods of large-scale deforestation that may otherwise have never been known. This deforestation— to accommodate agriculture for an expanding human population — triggered the beginnings of a vibrant ecosystem that is still with us today.

While this historical deforestation has led to the multifaceted ecosystems that currently exist in the Danube Delta, the results of present-day deforestation can be ecologically devastating, leading to a loss of wildlife habitat and increasing soil erosion. As the Roadless Rule and its litigation demonstrate, forests, along with their protection and use, continue to be pivotal pieces in the development of our human environment.


Deep Diversity

by Alex Cimon

With kayakers battling rapids 2,000 feet below “pygmy forests” and oak flats, Colorado’s Black Canyon of Gunnison National Park is one of the more unique natural experiences one can have. Over the weekend, this diverse 14-mile stretch along Gunnison River celebrated its 13th anniversary as a national park. In recognition of Black Canyon’s founding, let’s take a look at what makes this park a special destination.

The slopes of Black Canyon split by Gunnison River

The slopes of Black Canyon split by Gunnison River. Credit: markbyzweski/ Flickr

Carved by the Gunnison River, the canyon is constantly being reshaped. As with most geological change, this process has been gradual, as the river has been influencing the landscape for approximately two million years. Within this actively shifting environment, several species of plants and animals thrive. This is due to the protection and maintenance of three distinct life zones surrounding and within the canyon:

  • The pinyon pine is a trademark feature of the “pygmy forests,” nicknamed for the small trees that populate this area, that surround the park along the Colorado Plateau. Junipers are also often in the mix. These pygmy forests were traditionally an excellent source of food, fuel and medicine for American Indians and still provide us with firewood and pine nuts today.
  • The second distinct life zone in Black Canyon is the oak flats that dominate the space around the canyon rim. Wildflowers, dense thickets and diverse wildlife characterize this part of the park. Oak acorns are plentiful and rich in nutrients, creating a welcome home for common wildlife such as the mule deer and black bear.
  • But the area between the canyon walls is what makes Black Canyon of Gunnison exceptional. Due to differences in erosion, sunlight and vegetation, the southern wall is sparsely vegetated and very steep. The northern wall, however, boasts pockets of Douglas fir and a variety of bird species. Bighorn sheep and mountain lions can also be found roaming the slopes. This scene extends down to the river, where several types of cottonwoods line the banks and large trout flourish.

The canyon’s terrain may seem like a challenge, but the national park is actually quite accessible. Two entrances, the north rim and south rim, give visitors different perspectives. But with its various nature trails and year-round accessibility, the southern rim is more developed. South Rim Road is the featured drive through the national park, but the Chasm View Nature Trail, Rim Rock Trail and Oak Flat Trail are also popular stops. Those looking for a more interactive visit can experience the park in several ways, including whitewater river kayaking, rock climbing, horseback riding and fishing.


The Race to Save California’s Oaks

by Susan Laszewski

The clock is ticking for oaks in northern California. The 2012 U.S. Forest Service aerial survey reveals that cases of sudden oak death (SOD) — caused by the pathogen p. ramorum — have increased tenfold in the last year. The disease is fatal for tanoaks and a number of oak species and also is damaging to other trees, including coastal redwoods.

Sudden Oak Death mortality of tanoak in Marin County, California

Sudden Oak Death mortality of tanoak in Marin County, California. Credit: USFS Region 5/Flickr

The first known incidents were in the 1990s in European nurseries, from which the disease spread into wild areas in the Netherlands and England. The first documented case on this side of the pond was in 2001. How exactly it got here is still unclear, but the aggressive rate at which it’s spreading is hard to miss. Last year, there were 38,000 new cases across 8,000 acres. This year? Nearly 376,000 cases across a whopping 54,000 acres. The pathogen thrives in the wet coastal tanoak and redwood rainforest and so far is confined mostly in northern California, with some pockets in Oregon, Washington and British Columbia. However, the disease tends to crop up in nurseries, where the ideal conditions can be mimicked, creating potential for it to spread outside its current range.

So, what are the consequences if these oak die? A major change in species composition will affect ecosystem functioning in many ways. According to the California Oak Mortality Task Force, food sources for wildlife will be lost, water quality could decrease and wildfires could become more frequent and more intense. In addition, another alarming finding of the most recent survey is that SOD is becoming more common in urban areas as well, including a few confirmed cases in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park. If the disease becomes common in the urban forest, it could affect neighborhoods’ air quality, water quality, housing prices and more.

As with many things, it seems the solution to preventing the spread of this horrible disease lies in communities coming together. The University of California-Berkley is spearheading community-based “SOD Blitzes” to educate citizens about SOD and get people involved in detecting and tracking the disease. These “citizen-scientist surveys” have helped to create a detailed map of the pathogen’s distribution, mainly by looking at the leaves of California bay laurels, p. ramorum‘s preferred host. If the pathogen can be detected before it spreads to oak trees, successful management may be possible. It’s a race against the clock.


Fighting for Clean Water

by Loose Leaf Team

By Michelle Werts

Waterfall

Credit: Fred Hsu/Flickr

Today marks the 40th anniversary of the Clean Water Act (CWA), which is the federal law governing water pollution in the U.S. The enactment of this act was fraught with peril, as it was passed by the Senate in November 1971 and by the House in March 1972 only to be vetoed by President Richard Nixon on Oct. 17, 1972. A day later, both the Senate and House would override Nixon’s veto, officially establishing CWA as the law of the land for protecting the integrity of our nation’s waterways. For the last 40 years, CWA has made significant headway in the fight against water pollution, but sadly, nearly half of all rivers, lakes and streams in the U.S. are still not swimmable or fishable.

Much of the CWA’s success has been in curtailing what’s known as point-source pollution, which is defined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as “any single identifiable source of pollution from which pollutants are discharged, such as a pipe, ditch, ship or factory smokestack.” By setting up regulations on common point source polluters like factories and sewage treatment plants, water pollution from those sources has been greatly reduced. However, there’s still the issue of nonpoint-source pollution.

Nonpoint-source pollution has the wonky definition of anything not defined as point source. Basically, this amounts to pollution that is a result of water running over polluted land during snow melts or rainstorms. Nonpoint source pollution often includes fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, oil, grease and other toxic chemicals. In the past 30 years, there has been a threefold increase in nitrogen pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources entering the Gulf of Mexico from the Mississippi River and its tributaries.

Therefore, as the CWA moves into its next 40 years, American Forests is encouraging its governing body, the EPA, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to develop plans and programs to address the nonpoint-source problem, especially because forests can play a crucial role. Researchers have found that for every 10 percent increase in forest cover in the source watershed, treatment and chemical costs decreased by approximately 20 percent.

Help us encourage the EPA and USDA to continue to improve the work of the CWA by visiting our Action Center and signing a pre-written letter about the CWA and its needed improvements that will be sent to the heads of the EPA and USDA.

Lewiston-Auburn, Maine

Lewiston-Auburn, Maine. (Left) Documerica photo by Charles Steinhacker from June 1973: The Androscoggin River flows between Lewiston (eastern shore) and Auburn (western shore). Lewiston is the state's foremost textile center. (Right) Same location in October 2012. Photo by Munroe Graham.


Hiking in the Hoyt

by Amanda Tai

Yesterday, I paid a visit to the Hoyt Arboretum in Portland, Oregon, and I want to share my experience and a few photos with you because I discovered that whether you’re an avid outdoorsman or a city dweller, there’s something for everyone to enjoy at the Hoyt Arboretum.

Foliage at Portland's Hoyt Arboretum

Foliage at Portland's Hoyt Arboretum. Credit: Amanda Tai

After stopping by the visitor center to grab a map, I was ready to hit the trails. I started out on the Redwood Trail, which features rich groves of redwoods and sequoias.

After stopping by the visitor center to grab a map, I was ready to hit the trails. I started out on the Redwood Trail, which features rich groves of redwoods and sequoias. Credit: Amanda Tai

From the Redwood Deck, I was able to get a 360-degree view of these gigantic trees. It’s quite a peaceful and humbling experience.

From the Redwood Deck, I was able to get a 360-degree view of these gigantic trees. It’s quite a peaceful and humbling experience. Credit: Amanda Tai

From the Redwood Trail, I veered off onto the Bristlecone Pine Trail, where I saw something I later found out is called the Chilean Monkey Puzzle Tree. Its name comes from the unique structure of its leaves and branches, which would present a challenge to a monkey trying to climb it. As you can see in the picture above, it has an unusual spiky appearance that looks like aloe vera leaves.

From the Redwood Trail, I veered off onto the Bristlecone Pine Trail, where I saw something I later found out is called the Chilean Monkey Puzzle Tree. Its name comes from the unique structure of its leaves and branches, which would present a challenge to a monkey trying to climb it. As you can see in the picture above, it has an unusual spiky appearance that looks like aloe vera leaves. Credit: Amanda Tai


Fall Fun

by Melinda Housholder, Urban Forests Program Director

I have very fond memories of raking leaves as a child.

Playing in the leaves

Playing in the leaves. Credit: Giulio Mola/Flickr

Growing up in the suburbs, we were lucky to have a big backyard. But, in the fall, in the midst of planning our Halloween costumes and carving our pumpkins, my sisters and I would always get tasked with raking the leaves. Yet, what I remember most now about this potentially tedious task is the giant leaf piles we would create. In the very back of our yard, we had a tree house with a huge ramp that you could bike, sled or peddle a three-wheeler down and into the yard. So, when we were tasked with raking the leaves, we would gather our neighborhood friends, have them help us rake the leaves into an enormous pile at the end of the ramp and then we would each take turns choosing our method down. I remember the feeling of excitement as I headed towards the great pile and being welcomed by the splash of crunchy leaves around me!

While we would eventually have to actually rake the leaves into smaller piles and into bags, the playtime that we got to enjoy while doing our “chores” made the hard work worth it. It is surprising to me that today many children are not interested in playing outside or encouraged to do so. In fact, studies show that the average American boy or girl spends just four to seven minutes in unstructured outdoor play each day and more than seven hours each day in front of an electronic screen.

The term “nature deficit disorder” was coined by Richard Louv in his book Last Child in the Woods to explain this societal disconnect that America’s youth have with nature. With less access to natural spaces, competition from television and computers, traffic and time pressures, kids have less and less exposure to playtime in nature.

Yet, research shows that getting outside has tremendous benefits for kids. For example:

  • Trees and green spaces help children cope with and reduce stress.
  • Children are more creative when playing in greenspaces.
  • Play protects children’s emotional development, whereas loss of free time and a hurried lifestyle can contribute to anxiety and depression.
  • After a walk in the park or playing in greenspaces, children with ADD displayed fewer symptoms.

Thus, whether or not kids have access to large backyards and treehouses, I feel kids need to be encouraged to get outside, play and enjoy nature in some way. Fall offers such a variety of fun things to do before the weather gets unpleasant. So, whether it is walking around to see the colorful changing leaves, picking the seasonal fruits and veggies in a local urban orchard or jumping into massive piles of leaves, encourage the kids around you to go out and play! And, perhaps you might just find yourself playing like a kid again.

Is there a favorite fall outside activity that reminds you of being a kid?


No Child Left Inside

by Julia Sullivan
Earth Sciences Week

Students of Cedros Secondary School in Trinidad planted a variety of tree species after learning about the importance of coastal forests in reducing the impact of tsunamis and other coastal hazards during Earth Sciences Week in 2009. Credit: UWI Seismic Research Centre/Flickr

Happy Earth Science Week! Today marks day two of this annual international event, which the American Geosciences Institute has organized since October 1998. Each year, the event addresses the broader goal of increasing public understanding and appreciation of earth sciences and encouraging stewardship of the Earth, and this year will be no different. Throughout the course of the week, however, the event will narrow its focus to this year’s particular theme: “Discovering Careers in the Earth Sciences.”

Over the years, people in all 50 states and more than five countries have participated in Earth Sciences Week. Events and activities range from educators leading their students through earth science activities to open houses held at major United States Geological Survey field stations. For those with a competitive flare, this year’s Earth Science Week includes a series of contests: a photography contest, a visual arts contest and an essay contest. Also, several days throughout the week are designated to celebrate certain aspects of earth sciences. Wednesday is National Fossil Day, Thursday is Women in the Geosciences Day and Friday is Geologic Map Day. Tomorrow, however, is perhaps the most well-known celebratory day — “No Child Left Inside” Day, which has come to be a popular rallying cry among youth organizations, fitness groups and government agencies in their efforts to promote outdoor activities.

“No Child Left Inside” Day originated just four years ago in order to encourage young people to get outdoors and explore the earth sciences firsthand. Its establishment led to the creation of countless events across the country, but one such event stands out as being extraordinary. In 2008, students from Langston Hughes Middle School in Reston, Virginia had the opportunity to hike to a nearby stream and wooded area, where they were greeted by a series of learning stations and scientists from the American Geosciences Institute. The students observed demonstrations and engaged in discussions on subjects such as water chemistry and biological diversity. They got to sample water, observe plants and animals, and study the interactions of natural systems before talking with journalists from NBC and NPR about the event.

This particular event stands as one of the great achievements of Earth Sciences Week and is one I discuss with envy. I know I would have relished the opportunity to sneak out of the classroom midday and explore the outdoors as a middle school student. And today, as a college junior pursuing a degree in Environmental Studies, this kind of activity still excites me. Really any day can be “No Child Left Inside” Day. So get involved in Earth Sciences Week, check out events near you and help promote understanding and appreciation for earth sciences.


Protecting Big Cacti

by Alex Cimon

More than 61 years before Saguaro National Park was created, the area was recognized as a national monument. Herbert Hoover approved this designation on March 1, 1933, in an effort to protect the saguaro cactus, which is a symbol of the Southwest and the Sonoran Desert. This decision marked the first time a national monument was established in order to protect a specific species. After years of environmental expansion and diversification, President Bill Clinton officially signed a bill designating Saguaro as the 52nd national park. This Sunday, October 14, marks the 18th anniversary of the park.

The plants, land and wildlife of Saguaro have seen many changes since 1933. Rincon Mountain District was the original site of Saguaro National Monument. Since then, a wilderness area, a second mountain district and an additional 3,500 acres have been added to the area. Today, the park consists of two major districts almost 40 miles apart. The eastern, Rincon Mountain District, and the western, Tucson Mountain District, provide two unique environments for visitors and the species that call Saguaro home.

Young Saguaro Forest

Young Saguaro Forest. Credit: Tony Fischer/Flickr

While both regions are filled with the iconic saguaro cacti, they are diverse in their landscape and biological makeup. Tucson, the newer district, ranges in elevation from about 2,200 feet to almost 4,700 feet and contains two different desert environments: desert scrub and desert grassland. Coyotes, quail and the desert tortoise are some of the common wildlife in this region. In comparison, the Rincon Mountains peak higher than those in Tucson (almost 8,700 feet) and contain six different environments, ranging from the scrubs of the Sonoran Desert to mixed conifer forests in higher elevations. Due to the elevation and diverse biotic communities, there is a great range of animals, including black bears, Arizona mountain king snakes and white-tailed deer.

Spring is a popular time for visitors, as wildflowers, bird, and other desert life become active. The saguaro cactus flower, which has been the Arizona state flower since 1931, blooms in the months of May and June. Visitors will want to take advantage of the various trails, drives and tours Saguaro has to offer. One of several scenic roads available in the Tucson District is Bajada Loop Drive. Spanning six miles through the western region of Saguaro, Bajada runs through large groups of cacti and leads travelers to short hikes and convenient picnic areas. Those looking for wildlife and nature walks can venture to the east and make their way around Cactus Forest Drive, an eight-mile road circling clockwise through the Rincon Mountain District.

P.S. Shockingly, neither of the two national co-champion saguaro cacti are located in the national park, but they are nearby. Where are they? Head to our Big Tree section to find out.


Listening to the Numbers

by Susan Laszewski

With last week’s release of the fall update to the National Register of Big Trees, there has been a lot of talk around American Forests lately about setting and breaking records. But not all records are ones to celebrate.

Cow in Tennessee drought

A cow kicks up dust in Tennessee drought conditions. Credit: Clint Alley/Flickr

July made the news this year as the hottest month on record in the United States. Now, the entire year of 2012 is poised to follow its example and become the hottest year in recorded history. According to the latest “State of the Climate” report released by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), September marked the first time that above average temperatures have continued for 16 straight months. The first nine months of this year have already been the warmest on record, with 46 states recording temperatures among their 10 all-time warmest.

While people in many parts of the country are breathing sighs of relief as October ushers in cooler weather, at this point, the last three months of 2012 would have to be some of the coldest in recorded history to prevent the year from breaking the record. According to meteorologist Nick Wiltgen of weather.com, the chance of 2012 not finishing as the warmest year in recorded history is less than seven percent. Many factors shape weather patterns, but this year’s heat is not independent from the overall trends of increasing average temperatures, whose causes include increased greenhouse gases and whose symptoms include the increasing intense weather events we’ve all been experiencing — 2012’s U.S. Climate Extremes Index (USCEI) number is more than twice the average. This may come as no surprise to Americans — nearly 65 percent of the contiguous U.S. is experiencing drought.

NASA studies changing conditions in the Arctic

NASA studies changing conditions in the Arctic. Credit: NASA Goodard Space Flight Center/Flickr

The U.S. isn’t the only one sweating; global temperatures this year were also some of the hottest on record. According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center, August was the 135th month in a row with smaller than average global sea ice extent and the first time that it has ever dropped below four million square kilometers. The loss in sea ice since this time last year is around the size of Texas.

NOAA introduced the USCEI to help policymakers make informed decisions on matters that affect and are affected by climate. Let’s hope they’re listening to the numbers.