A Pesky (and Costly) Problem

by Loose Leaf Team

By Tacy Lambiase

Think you know the impact that invasive pests can have on our ecosystems and pocketbooks? You might want to think again. Every year, pesky insects and pathogens cost our nation billions of dollars in damaged crops and forestlands.

U.S. Department of Agriculture entomologists inspect orange trees for Asian citrus psyllids.

U.S. Department of Agriculture entomologists inspect orange trees for Asian citrus psyllids. Credit: USDA

Earlier this month, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) released a list of the top 15 pests that pose the greatest threats to our agricultural system and trees. Some of the insects on the list are familiar beasts: the emerald ash borer (EAB), which has been devastating ash trees across the Midwest, and the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), a pest that destroys maple trees and other hardwood species in the Northeast.

Although the state of New Jersey recently eradicated ALB, the species has already cost the United States millions of dollars and has severely altered tree cover in states like Massachusetts. “It’s been dramatic,” Chris Martin, a Connecticut state forester, tells USA Today. “You used to have tree-lined streets, and now these neighborhoods are just devoid of trees.”

Other notorious pests on the list eat their way through agricultural production, ruining food grown in orchards and farms across the country. For example, the Asian citrus psyllid, an insect that carries Citrus Greening Disease, has single handedly cost orange and grapefruit growers in Florida nearly $4.5 billion. Two species found in Hawaii, Oriental and Mediterranean fruit flies, feast on hundreds of different fruits, vegetables and nuts. The effect of these flies is similar to that of the Asian citrus psyllid: Produce and crops are destroyed and rendered unfit for consumption.

With the spread of these insects, the U.S. may start cracking down on travelers and campers who can unknowingly spread these pests. Many campgrounds already prohibit campers from bringing in firewood from other places since insects and wood borers could be brought to the area as larvae inside of the wood. Other parks don’t allow visitors to take firewood outside of their borders, especially in regions that have already been infested with insects like EAB and ALB.

Other countries are battling the same invasive pests as the U.S.. A sign posted in Toronto, Ontario, is part of Canada’s efforts to contain an infestation of Asian long-horned beetles.

Other countries are battling the same invasive pests as the U.S.. A sign posted in Toronto, Ontario, is part of Canada’s efforts to contain an infestation of Asian long-horned beetles. Credit: GTD Aquitaine/Wikimedia Commons

“We need to get Americans to start thinking about how these pests are moving around the country,” says Scott Pfister, the director of the pest management department at the USDA’s plant protection and quarantine division, to USA Today. “April’s the time of year when people start to go camping and hiking and work in their gardens, so it’s a very appropriate time to address this national problem.”

Although some people may resist firewood restrictions, the USDA hopes to spread awareness and understanding about the need to control these pests and where they spread. The USDA has also declared April to be Invasive Plant Pest and Disease Awareness Month, drawing attention to the negative consequences of invasive species and pests.

Want to learn more about these pests and how you can help minimize their impacts on forests and crops? Visit the USDA’s website HungryPests.com and dontmovefirewood.org.


A Long-Expected Budget

by Loose Leaf Team

By Josh DeLacey

President Obama released his Fiscal Year 2014 budget recommendations on Wednesday, and with only a few disappointments, the budget shows dedicated support for forestland health and federal conservation programs.

The White House

The president’s FY2014 budget makes forest health a priority. Credit: Beth Jusino

To keep sequester cuts from inflicting more damage, the president’s budget is based on FY2012 funding levels, a decision American Forests has advocated in favor of. The sequester put FY2013 funding too low for adequate conservation, and we have seen the consequences in national park closures and underfunded wildfire management. Moving forward, responsible conservation requires — at a minimum — a return to full FY2012 funding levels, and we are happy to see the administration recognize this need.

Specifically, the budget recommends fully funding the U.S. Forest Service’s Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration program (CFLR), which is restoring millions of acres of forestland across 23 project sites. As a member of the CFLR Coalition’s steering committee, American Forests is especially pleased that this bipartisan, community-based program has the administration’s support. The president’s budget also requests to restore pre-sequester funding for the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) Public Domain Forest Management, another important program.

But the president’s budget does more than just restore past funding levels: It also requests increased support for some of the government’s most vital conservation programs across federal agencies. For instance, the administration wants to increase funding for the National Wildlife Refuge System, which American Forests has worked closely with through various Global ReLeaf projects. Our most significant partnership is in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, one of North America’s most biologically diverse areas, where we have helped plant more than 1.5 million trees in the last 15 years. Other key programs whose funding the administration wants to increase include the Land and Water Conservation Fund, the national park system and the BLM’s national monuments and conservation areas.

Additionally, the president’s budget requests $10 million to establish the Urban Parks and Recreation Fund, a resource that American Forests is very excited about, as it would expand the environmental, social and economic value of urban forests. More than 84 percent of the U.S. population lives in urban areas, and they all stand to benefit from an increased focus on greening cities and suburbs.

Despite its good points, though, the president’s budget is not perfect. It decreases funding for the Urban and Community Forestry program by $6 million, limiting the technical, financial and educational assistance that the program offers to thousands of communities throughout the U.S. The National Recreation and Preservation program and the Recreation, Heritage and Wilderness program also face budget reductions.

But aside from those disappointments, American Forests is very pleased with the president’s budget. However, this budget is not set in stone. Next, in the coming months, Congress will examine it amid various other input to determine the appropriation funding levels for FY2014. But with the president’s budget restoring FY2012 funding levels for conservation, the prognosis is very promising. The administration has clearly indicated that forest health and conservation are priorities that deserve increased support.


This is Your Brain on Nature

by Susan Laszewski

A walk in the park

A walk in the park. Credit: Vincent Brassine

It’s not news that time in the great outdoors is good for your brain. We’ve written before about how exposure to nature is good for creative problem solving and mental health.

But how can we determine how much of this relationship is causal when there could be other reasons for correlation? Well, a new study released from researchers at Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh and the University of Edinburgh published in the British Journal of Science has begun answering that question with some pretty high-tech tools.

The 12 study participants were given portable electroencephalograms (EEGs) called Emotiv EPOC to wear under hats against their scalps. The EEGs measured brain waves and sent data wirelessly to a laptop in the participant’s backpack. And here I thought Google glasses sounded high-tech! The participants were then sent on a mile-and-a-half stroll through three neighborhoods — a quiet shopping district, a park and a busy business district.

Analyzing their brain waves for patterns associated with short-term excitement, frustration, engagement, long-term excitement (mental arousal) and meditation, the researchers found that walking through the park eased participants’ brain fatigue. While they maintained attention to their surroundings, they also were able to reflect, unlike the heightened mental arousal that they experienced on the busy streets.

While a study of 12 participants doesn’t provide a large pool of data, the use of the new portable EEGs may open up a whole new world of studying nature’s effect on the brain in real-time. It certainly adds to the growing body of data telling us that planting and maintaining urban forests makes for a happier, healthier city and happier, healthier people.


Big Tree Madness Recap

by Loose Leaf Contributor
The "Prickly and Persistent" Ozark Chinkapin of Missouri won the title of "Ultimate Big Tree."

The “Prickly and Persistent” Ozark Chinkapin of Missouri won the title of “Ultimate Big Tree.”

What a win for the Midwest! Not only did the Louisville Cardinals take home the crown in last night’s NCAA championship, but the title of “Ultimate Big Tree” also went to a Midwestern tree in the Big Tree Madness final. Congratulations to Missouri’s “Prickly and Persistent” Ozark chinkapin!

Many may look at the champion and think, “It’s not that big. There are giant sequoias and southern live oaks that dwarf that tree.” But, remember, size is relative. All Big Tree Madness contenders are national champion trees — the largest known of their species in the country. Even the Texas redbud of Connecticut, which was eliminated in the first round, is a giant among its own kind — a “tiny titan” as they’re respectfully classified on the National Register of Big Trees.

Even so, the size of the Ultimate Big Tree becomes impressive when you take into account that the Ozark chinkapin is a member of the chestnut family, susceptible to the dreaded chestnut blight and, consequently, a species of conservation concern. Maybe that’s part of why it means so much to the legions of fans who came out to vote. Not only is the wood of this amazing tree rot-resistant, it proved itself resistant to defeat as well.

Perhaps the biggest upset of the tournament was the western redcedar’s fourth quarter defeat by the “Brave Giant” of Hawaii — the Acacia koa. Coming from a state known for its old-growth forest, Washington’s western redcedar was an early favorite to win, but the Brave Giant’s fans mobilized to crush the competition and went on to take their tree all the way to the Final Four.

The Acacia koa is the largest native tree species on an island that struggles with keeping invasives at bay. More than half of Hawaii’s original forests have been lost, largely due to invasives, so it’s no wonder that the “Brave Giant” would be an important symbol of pride in Hawaiian native forests. [Editor’s preview: The Spring/Summer 2013 issue of American Forests, which is being released next month, features an article on Hawaii’s delicate ecosystem and the struggle against invasives.]

But, as they say, everything is bigger in Texas, and in the Final Four, that included the “Mighty” Montezuma baldcypress’ fan base. The Montezuma baldcypress brought the koa’s run to an end, before facing its own defeat in the final.

You can review the entire bracket on our Big Tree page.

What’s next for Big Trees?

There are more than 780 national champions currently listed onthe National Register of Big Trees, so if your favorite big tree didn’t make it into the tournament, it doesn’t mean it’s not a national champion. Search the register, and if you still don’t see your favorite tree, stay tuned. The Spring 2013 release of the register is coming April 26th. Champions will rise, and reigning champs will be dethroned. Some new species may even see their first champion crowned. And, yes, we may mourn some fallen giants, as all life must eventually come to end. If you enjoyed Big Tree Madness, then hold on to your seats: The big tree fun is just getting started.


Under the Sea

by Loose Leaf Team

By Michelle Werts

Green sea turtle

Green sea turtle. Credit: puuikibeach/Flickr

You know that old expression about “work following you home”? Well, last week, I had work following me on vacation. No, I wasn’t checking emails while visiting the Caribbean, but I did find myself reflecting on topics that are often discussed around the halls of American Forests and here on Loose Leaf, such as:

  • Rainforest deforestation – The island of St. Lucia used to be more than 80 percent rainforest, but those forests have been reduced to less than 45 percent due to past agricultural practices.
  • Endangered species – A snorkeling trip had me spying on threatened green sea turtles living in a protected bay and cove near St. Thomas, a U.S. territory.

And upon my return to work this morning, I found that the Caribbean had followed me home, as a study published yesterday in Nature Geoscience reveals how air pollution —something we normally discuss in the realm of how it affects human health, how it is impacting climate change, how forests help filter it — is affecting an unlikely species: coral in the Caribbean.

Reef off St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

Reef off St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Credit: NOAA CCMA Biogeography Team

A team of climate scientists and coral ecologists studied coral growth rates in the western Caribbean between 1880 and 2000, using previously published data, and discovered that while coral may live under the sea, the atmosphere plays a big role in its growth.

In a release about the study, Dr. Paul Halloran explains that “particulate pollution or ‘aerosols’ reflect incoming sunlight and make clouds brighter. This can reduce the light available for coral photosynthesis, as well as the temperature of surrounding waters. Together these factors are shown to slow down coral growth.” The study shows that in the early 1900s, slower coral growth rates were a result of volcanic activity, as aerosol emissions clouded the atmosphere, but by the late 1900s, aerosol emissions slowing coral growth could be attributed to industrialization.

Coral reefs support a fourth of the world’s oceanic species, and the researchers behind this new study hope it will lead to more understanding about how climate change and regional industrialization may affect coral habitats.


America’s Most Popular Parks

by Loose Leaf Team

By Tacy Lambiase

This week, the National Park Service released a list of the most visited National Parks during 2012. The total number of national park visitors for the year — over 282 million people — was the sixth highest number of annual visitors in the history of the National Park Service.

Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Credit: Miguel Vieira/Flickr

Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Credit: Miguel Vieira/Flickr

Great Smoky Mountains National Park maintained its status as the most visited national park in the country, welcoming over 9 million visitors last year. The list also includes Yellowstone National Park, America’s first national park, and Zion National Park, a biologically diverse preserve in Utah.

“The National Park Service strives to represent all that America has to offer,” says National Park Service Director Jonathan B. Jarvis. “People come to national parks for many reasons — for recreation and to learn about American history by strolling through a battlefield. They come to listen to a park ranger at Independence National Historical Park and marvel at the Continental Congress. And people come to national parks for old-fashioned enjoyment of the great outdoors.”

Below is the list of the most visited National Parks in 2012:

1.    Great Smoky Mountains National Park (9,685,829 visitors)
2.    Grand Canyon National Park (4,421,352 visitors)
3.    Yosemite National Park (3,853,404 visitors)
4.    Yellowstone National Park (3,447,729 visitors)
5.    Rocky Mountain National Park (3,229,617 visitors)
6.    Zion National Park (2,973,607 visitors)
7.    Olympic National Park (2,824,908 visitors)
8.    Grand Teton National Park (2,705,256 visitors)
9.    Acadia National Park (2,431,052 visitors)
10. Cuyahoga Valley National Park (2,299,722 visitors)

National champion Western redcedar.

National champion Western redcedar.

Millions of people travel to these sites every year to go hiking, camping, exploring and to simply enjoy the beauty of nature. While it’s obvious that trees enhance the landscapes of many of our national parks, it’s not very well known that several of these parks are home to some of our nation’s “Big Trees.” For more than 70 years, American Forests’ National Big Tree Program has kept a record of the largest trees of each species in the United States. Several of the program’s champion trees are located in Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Olympic National Park.

Great Smoky Mountains National Park draws huge crowds and big trees. On the North Carolina side of the park, a national champion red spruce tree stands 147 feet tall. This national park is also home to the national champion cinnamon tree. At just 33 feet tall, this tree is considered a “tiny titan” among the larger trees on the register.

Located in Washington, Olympic National Park boasts several national champion Big Trees. If you visit the park, you can marvel at two pacific silver fir trees which stand over 200 feet tall. Another of Olympic’s Big Trees, a Western redcedar, was a contender in American Forests’ Big Tree Madness competition this past month. (Though the redcedar has been eliminated, you can still vote for the remaining contenders through Monday.) This popular tree was first nominated for the register in 1945.

Want to visit a Big Tree? Curious about which Big Trees may be located near you? Stay tuned — the spring 2013 National Register of Big Trees will be released later this month!


Big Tree Madness Final Four

by Loose Leaf Contributor

Big Tree Madness Final Four kicked off today with the “Mighty” Montezuma Baldcypress from Texas representing the South and the “Brave Giant” Acacia Koa of Hawaii representing the West. Tomorrow the “Prickly and Persistent” Ozark Chinkapin of Missouri will go up against the “Overtly Awesome” Osage-orange from Virginia. The Ozark chinkapin will be one to watch. The tree has had a strong and mobilized fan base throughout the competition. But the Brave Giant’s fans have not been taking the competition sitting down either, not have the fans of the Mighty, and the osage-orange has a lot of popular and historic appeal. At this point, it’s too close to call.

Cast your vote!

Bracket-template-Final-Four-(website-size)

Final Four tree stats:

  1. “Mighty” Montezuma Baldcypress (Texas)

    Tree Circumference:301
    Height:68
    Crown Spread:99
    Total Points:394
    Location: San Benito

  2. “Brave Giant” Acacia Koa (Hawaii)

    Tree Circumference:343
    Height:115
    Crown Spread:93
    Location: Kona Hema Preserve

  3. “Overtly Awesome” Orange-Osage (Virginia)

    Tree Circumference:349
    Height:60
    Crown Spread:88
    Location: Red Hill Shrine, Charlotte, VA

  4. “Prickly and Persistent” Ozark Chinkapin (Missouri)

    Tree Circumference:35
    Height:62
    Crown Spread:38


Not Just for Children

by Loose Leaf Team

By Michelle Werts

wonder of nature

Oh, the wonder of nature. Credit: Jonf728/Flickr

I was feeling a bit whimsical the other night, so in honor of National Poetry Month I pulled out my old copies of The Light in the Attic and Where the Sidewalk Ends by Shel Silverstein, immersing myself in the lyrical, satirical world of Shel’s creation. All of the funny bits were still there: the boa’s eating people, kids not taking the garbage out, all of the poems that uniquely required the hand-drawn illustration to grasp the meaning. But I also discovered the poems on a whole new level than I had before — having not read them in more than a decade. Shel wasn’t just writing wacky, silly poems for kids; he was saying things that are just as relevant today as they were 30 years ago. I could share dozens with you, but I’ll limit myself to just two, hoping they touch you as they touched me.

Forgotten Language

Once I spoke the language of the flowers,
Once I understood each word the caterpillar said,
Once I smiled in secret at the gossip of the starlings,
And shared a conversation with the housefly
in my bed.
Once I heard and answered all the questions
of the crickets,
And joined the crying of each falling dying
flake of snow,
Once I spoke the language of the flowers….
How did it go?
How did it go?

flower

Flower’s.Lover/Flickr

Peckin’

The saddest thing I ever did see
Was a woodpecker peckin’ at a plastic tree.
He looks at me, and “Friend,” says he,
“Things ain’t as sweet as they used to be.”

 

Take a moment today, during Earth Month, to remember the language of nature. Take a moment to bask in the loveliness of the world. Take a moment to be thankful for the diverse sounds, colors and species that surround us. And, if you’re inclined, take a moment to help us protect the natural world we sometimes take for granted.


In Bloom: Washington’s Cherry Blossoms

by Loose Leaf Team

By Tacy Lambiase

The Washington Monument overlooks the tidal basin’s blooming cherry trees. Credit: Rob Posse/Flickr

The Washington Monument overlooks the tidal basin’s blooming cherry trees. Credit: Rob Posse/Flickr

The arrival of Washington’s cherry blossoms is a highly anticipated event that draws thousands of people to the National Mall and Tidal Basin every year.  Since 1935, the Cherry Blossom Festival has marked this annual occasion with parades, performances and exhibits. This year’s festivities will surely be no exception. But while many people flock to our nation’s capital to enjoy the visual splendor of cherry trees in bloom, the historical significance of these trees should also be celebrated.

It may be common knowledge that the original 3,020 cherry trees planted in Washington, D.C., were a gift of friendship from the nation of Japan to the United States. According to the National Park Service, in 1912, these trees were shipped by boat from Yokohama, Japan, to Seattle, where they were then loaded onto a train bound for Washington. Upon the arrival of the trees in late March, First Lady Helen Taft and Viscountess Chinda, wife of the Japanese Ambassador, held a ceremony to honor the friendship between their two countries. They planted the first two cherry trees on the north end of the Tidal Basin. From 1913 to 1920, nearly 1,800 cherry trees of the Somei-Yoshino variety were also planted along the basin. The other 11 varieties took root in East Potomac Park and on the grounds of the White House.

While initially given as a gift, these cherry trees have become part of a long-term exchange of culture and blossoms between Japan and the United States. In 1965, the Japanese government gave 3,800 more cherry trees to “Lady Bird” Johnson, an environmental enthusiast and First Lady. Many of these trees were planted around the Washington Monument. Later, in 1982, the United States allowed Japan to take hundreds of cuttings from the trees by the Tidal Basin to grow cherry trees with a similar genetic make-up. These would replace many cherry trees that had been destroyed in Japan when a river’s original course was altered. These and other gestures involving cherry trees have come to symbolize the enduring friendship and peace between the United States and Japan. Hopefully, these trees will continue to foster goodwill and an appreciation of trees for many years to come.

Although Tokyo’s cherry trees bloomed early this year, residents of Washington, D.C., have been patiently waiting for the District’s trees to show signs of spring. Horticulturalists with the National Park Service, however, have predicted that “Peak Bloom Date” for this year’s buds will happen this week–between April 3 and April 6. According to the Park Service, the Peak Bloom Date is defined as the day when 70 percent of the blooms are open on the cherry trees surrounding the Tidal Basin. Although the blooming period starts a few days before this date, and can last as long as two weeks, be strategic when planning your visit to see these beautiful trees in action.

Can’t make it to this year’s Cherry Blossom Festival? Watch the Smithsonian’s beautiful timelapse video of last year’s blooms:


Give a Peep for Birds

by Susan Laszewski

Peeps

Peeps. Credit: James Vela.

American Bird Conservancy’s current Bird of the Week has been drawing a lot of attention. For the second time, they have declared the bird of the week to be the peep — that marshmallow treat so popular this time of year.

Though the peep has earned the honor once before, in 2011, only the yellow peep was recognized. Now, scientists have determined pink, purple, and blue peeps to be separate species. “There simply isn’t any evidence that these forms interbreed,” says American Bird Conservancy senior scientist, David Wiedenfeld. “While they can often be found roosting in the same box, the fact is that nobody has ever seen an intermediate bird between the color morphs.”

While American Forests currently has no projects that benefit peep habitat directly — in fact, as American Bird Conservancy says, “Although Peeps are heavily consumed, their populations appear to quickly rebound in subsequent years and therefore they are not a species of conservation concern” — we have been pleased in the past to see some of the endangered species we’re working on behalf of awarded the honor of Bird of the Week.

Red-cockaded woodpecker

Red-cockaded woodpecker. Credit: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Headquarters.

The red-cockaded woodpecker held the honor last year during the week of April 13. Endemic to the continental U.S., this unique bird requires an extremely specialized habitat. Unlike most woodpeckers, it nests in live pines, not in dead trees. The pines must be mature (at least 80 years old) and have red heart disease, making the wood soft enough for the woodpeckers to chip away at, even while the living pine is healthy enough to push out pitch, further protecting the nest. American Forests has been working to restore longleaf pine forests that the woodpecker can call home for decades, including our recent work in the Hal Scott Regional Preserve and Park in Florida.

Spotted owl

Spotted owl. Credit: Lip Kee Yap.

Another bird we’ve been paying a lot of attention to held the Bird of the Week title in July 2011: the spotted owl. The spotted owl has suffered from a severe loss of its old-growth forest habitat, largely due to logging. American Forests has conducted restoration projects in spotted owl habitat for years, including work in San Bernadino National Forest for the California spotted owl and work in Cibola National Forest on behalf of the Mexican spotted owl. We’ve also advocated for policy to benefit these endangered birds, submitting comments last year to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on the recovery plan for the northern spotted owl.

Not all birds have the healthy populations that the peep is lucky to have, but with your help, we hope we can restore habitat to give more species a fighting chance.