Forest Digest — Week of March 30, 2015

by American Forests

Kick off the Holiday Weekend in style with the latest Forest Digest!

  • Deforestation is messing with our weather and our food-
    Deforestation is often used to make way for agricultural fields, and while this is known to have an impact on global food production, researchers have found new evidence that this effect is not a positive one. Land use changes can alter the albedo — the reflection of the sun’s rays back into the atmosphere — and evapotranspiration — the movement of water through the soil, plant and back to the atmosphere — driving temperature changes that could cause crops to fail.
  • East Asian human activities affect air quality in remote tropical
    Atmospheric pollutants are often transported around the world by wind, and this is spoiling the air quality in the Borneo rainforest in Southeast Asia. Industrial pollutants are coming in with cold air masses from the north and depositing them in the forest and the stratosphere, which could cause harm to the ozone layer.
  • Global forest loss reversed, despite large-scale deforestation in the tropicstreehugger
    New satellite data from the University of New South Wales indicates that vegetation around the globe is increasing despite massive deforestation rates in tropical rainforests. Many countries are benefiting from increased rainfall while others are seeing forest regrowth on abandoned farmland or even implementing massive reforestation projects, such as China.
  • ADM Announces Plan to Fight DeforestationThe New York Times
    In September 2014, many companies such as Cargill, Kellogg and Nestlé signed agreements to end tropical deforestation due to their supply chains by 2030. Now another big company, ADM, announced a plan to work with the Forest Trust to help reduce the impact of their supply chains on deforestation. Many environmental organizations see this as a step in the right direction and hope that more companies will feel the pressure to also curb deforestation rates.
Aspen and pine trees in the western U.S. are in danger as the climate warms, wildfires burn and beetles infestations spring up.

Aspen and pine trees in the western U.S. are in danger as the climate warms, wildfires burn and beetles infestations spring up.

  • Climate Change Threatens to Kill Off More Aspen Forests by 2050s, Scientists SayThe New York Times
    Drought and heat in the western U.S. are responsible to the death of millions of aspens in recent years and according to scientists at Princeton University tree loss is going to become more frequent by 2050 thanks to climate change. Between climate change and mountain pine beetles, many are worried forests could become sparse in the West in the very near future.
  • 48 hours that changed the future of rainforestsgrist
    The palm oil industry has caused farmers to clear cut an area the size of Taiwan from the rainforest in recent years, but in 48 hours, two companies — Forest Heroes and The Forest Trust — convinced Wilmar, the biggest palm oil corporation, to stop all deforestation activity within their supply chain. It was more than anyone could have hoped for and put pressure on other palm oil companies to do the same!
  • Tree Cover Loss Spikes in Russia and Canada, Remains High Globally- Global Forest Watch
    New satellite images were released from the University of Maryland yesterday that show a combined 34 percent increase of forest loss in Russian and Canada during 2013, and a 5.2 percent increase globally. While this loss stems from natural and anthropogenic sources, many scientists are worried that this spike could become a trend.

GR25: Reforesting America’s Last Frontier

by connie

Welcome back, time travelers!

In honor of the ever-anticipated spring season before us, we’re heading on a journey to a place that reminds us that, in reality, it could always be colder — like Chiniak, Alaska, for example!

While the United States was reeling economically from The Great Recession in 2009, forestry work and environmental needs continued to assume the forefront of American Forests’ mind. We continued our reforestation work by venturing to Kodiak Island with our third installation of the Cape Chiniak Reforestation initiative. Located on more than 2,600 acres that had been deforested for timber during the 90s, this project worked to restore hundreds of previously harvested acres with native Sitka spruce seedlings. Named for the town Sitka, Alaska, the Sitka spruce is the largest spruce species in the world, and the fifth-largest conifer globally — a fact that would certainly be appealing for those of you who are wrapped up in American Forests’ Big Tree Madness bracket!.

Sitka spruce have a few other talents as well. They can grow to live more than 700 years, and their high strength-to-weight ratio and knot-free rings make them an excellent conductor of sound. As a result, the Sitka spruce was widely harvested for use in harp, piano, violin and guitar manufacturing.

Originally, it was anticipated that regeneration of Sitka spruce would occur through natural seeding, as occurs in most other Sitka spruce forests in Alaska. Unfortunately, several biological events occurred that resulted in nearly no (zero) natural regeneration from occurring.

As a result, American Forests planted more than 55,000 native seedlings to enhance regeneration in this critical area. But our work in this area was far from over — in fact, we continued reforesting Cape Chiniak in 2010 with the project’s fourth installment. In total, more than 200,000 native Sitka spruce seedlings were planted in this massive, multi-year undertaking, providing habitat for rare, native wildlife species such as the Kodiak brown bear, Sitka black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk.

Home sweet home: sugar pine restoration in Tahoe

by American Forests

By Sydney Mucha, Communications Intern

Tahoe National Forest is home to one of California’s most complex and diverse ecosystems. The forest encompasses snow-capped mountains, winding rivers and densely packed tree stands, enough to make anyone stand in awe of the area’s beauty. The forest is especially known for its massive stands of sugar pine, which is the largest species of pine in the world. The species dots the picturesque landscape in the high elevations of the park and can grow more than 200 feet tall and six feet in diameter!

Yet, this serene landscape and the glorious sugar pine has been tarnished by two fires: the 2013 American Fire and the 2014 Hirschdale Fire, which destroyed 27,400 and 84 acres (respectively?) and much of the forest ecosystem. And to make matters worse, the sugar pine and white pine species have been decimated by blister rust since the early-2000s!

Local school children are given a chance to go outside and help plant trees that will help restore the ecosystem that has been plagued by disease and wildfires. Photo Credit: Sugar Pine Foundation

Local school children are given a chance to go outside and help plant trees that will help restore the ecosystem that has been plagued by disease and wildfires. Photo Credit: Sugar Pine Foundation

The Sugar Pine Foundation saw these fires as a chance to restore the forest and the beloved sugar pine. To carry out their restoration efforts, the Foundation’s staff climb blister rust-resistant trees and use the cones that they collect to germinate seedlings for their plantings so the new trees will also be immune to the non-native invasive fungus.

“The wind started to blow all of a sudden, and the next thing I know I am hugging the tree to stay upright,” said Maria Mircheva of the Sugar Pine Foundation about this fall’s cone collection “It was one of the most terrifying and exciting experiences I have had.”

For Maria and other members of the Foundation, these collections, while dangerous, are the most fun and do the most good for future trees.

And now, thanks to a partnership between American Forests and the Sugar Pine Foundation, the cones collected from the fall are being germinated at this moment for a spring planting. The two groups plan to plant 7,000 sugar pine over 152 acres — encompassing the 91 acres destroyed by the fires and 61 acres on California’s Northstar Resort for added conservation efforts. More than 400 volunteers from various school groups and community organizations from the greater Tahoe area will help plant the trees.

Most importantly, these new seedlings will help bring diversity back to the forest, which already has large stands of Jeffery pines and white firs. Biodiverse forest ecosystems can tolerate environmental stressors such as disease and drought. Additionally, these trees will help protect the region’s watershed, provide habitat to a variety of wildlife, decrease future fire risk and restore the beauty and recreational benefits of the forest.

Forest Digest — Week of March 23, 2015

by American Forests

Nothing better than curling up with some reading on a rainy day. So why not read the latest Forest Digest today!

  • The Fate of Trees: How Climate Change May Alter Forests Rolling Stone
    According to Dr. Park Williams of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, southwest confers, such Douglas-fir, piñon pine and ponderosa pine, are in big trouble as the climate continues to warm. In his “forest-drought stress index,” the first of its kind, he predicts that the rise in temperatures will turn deadly for these species in 2050, which will have a dramatic effect on the amount of carbon sequestration.
The ponderosa pine could suffer great declines in the coming years as the climate warms at an extremely fast rate.

The ponderosa pine could suffer great declines in the coming years as the climate warms at an extremely fast rate.

  • Western forests decimated by pine beetles not more likely to
    Mountain pine beetles left nearly 25,000 square miles of forest in the American west devastated, but a recent study conducted by the University of Colorado-Boulder has found that these infested forests are not at a higher risk for forest fires, something that was originally thought.
  • Given new powers, Pakistanis take on illegal loggersReuters
    Villagers in 52 northern Pakistan cities have now been given the power to confront, detain and fine illegal loggers in their areas. While this new government initiative is aimed to curb the country’s deforestation rate — currently 27,000 hectares per year — but many believe that the fines are still too small.
  • Amazon Forest Becoming Less of a Climate Change Safety NetThe New York Times
    The Amazon is struggling to soak up carbon from the atmosphere, which could mean that our main agent in the fight against climate change is no longer as dependable as we have hoped. The question now: Will other forests follow the Amazon’s lead or will they be able to pick up the slack?

For all our D.C. readers, don’t forget that this weekend is the closing of the Environmental Film Festival. Get out there and see some great films about forests, coral reefs and environmental activism!

Striving to decrease nature deficit for children in urban areas

by Ian Leahy

Without a doubt, the part of urban forestry that intrigues me the most is environmental psychology – the study of how natural features impact our behavior. In both obvious and subtle ways, a growing body of research over the past couple decades has emerged that hints at just how deep this connection goes, particularly on children, and just how much further it could go if we created truly green cities teeming with healthy vegetation.

Some impacts are obvious. A study from the Landscape and Human Health Lab in the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign shows that fewer symptoms of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) occur in children who walked through a park versus those who walked through a neighborhood or a quiet downtown area. Other impacts, however, are less obvious and can be downright fascinating! The same research lab found that girls in a Chicago public housing development who lived in apartments with greener, more natural views scored better on self-discipline tests. Another massive study found that school performance improved in some children who engaged with nature on a regular basis.

The next frontier of urban forestry is making these types of impacts an everyday reality for all children. While trees are an important part of that, they can’t do the work alone. We at American Forests are embarking on a new effort to create not just green spaces, but dynamic green spaces designed to deeply engage visitors.

kid in High line Park

Places like Manhattan’s High Line Park, give kids in urban areas the perfect place to ineract with nature and make a strong connection to it.

In Washington, D.C., we have been working with forward-thinking landscape architecture firm Bradley Site Design to help design and install a three-acre portable urban farm and fruit orchard on local buildings in the eastern tip of the city. The mobility of this project will allow it to shift after a few years to other underutilized properties, serving the needs of communities in this rapidly changing city. The best part, in my opinion, is that local youth will engage in a state-of-the-art American Forests curriculum that helps them contribute to the site design while learning first-hand from professionals who work in urban development professions every day.

Also, in Detroit and Oakland, American Forests is in the early planning stages working with local partners to create much-needed, hands-on outdoor education spaces on underutilized land for children in low-income neighborhoods to engage with nature in a positive way.

For all these projects, we will also analyze the social, economic and environmental impact these site-specific restorations will have on the local community. As we embark on this exciting new initiative with diverse industries, our hope is that these projects, and others, begin to spread some of the many benefits urban forests provide to children.

If you would like to support our efforts, please consider making a donation or encourage your elected officials to support the No Child Left Inside Act. Also, to read more about American Forests’ efforts to connect children with nature, please read our blog.

Forest Digest — Week of March 16, 2015

by American Forests

Happy first day of spring! Why not celebrate with the latest issue of Forest Digest!

  • The Quiet Plan to Sell Off America’s National ForestsThinkProgress
    This week, a proposal to seize and sell America’s national forests and public lands made its way into the U.S. House. This plan will suggest that public lands be transferred from the federal government to the states, which has many worried that states may raise taxes, open the land for drilling and mining, or sell the lands to private groups to cover the cost of management.
Shoshone National forest and others like it could be passed on to the states, which could lead to greater finical burdens and open them up for exploitation.

Shoshone National forest and others like it could be passed on to the states, which could lead to greater finical burdens and open them up for exploitation.

  • This ecologist wants to plant a “pop-up” forest in Times SquareGrist
    As part of a Kickstarter campaign, urban ecologist and botanist Marrielle Anzelone launched the idea to install a pop-up forest in Times Square that would include shipping containers full of trees, flowers and a wide variety of wildlife. This forest would stay in the city for three weeks before moving to a different city, giving people the opportunity to connect with nature in an urban setting.
  • Amazon’s carbon uptake declines as trees die
    After 30 years of research conducted in the South American rainforest, scientists have discovered that the amount of CO2 uptake by the Amazon has more than halved since its peak of 2 billion tons in the 1990s. This dramatic decrease has been caused by increased photosynthesis rates, which has caused the trees to grow quicker and die younger.
  • Forest managers hindered in efforts to use prescribed burns to control costly
    Prescribed burns are known to help restore unhealthy ecosystems, stop the spread of insects and diseases and reduce the severity of wildfires, but forest managers and private land holders have recently been stalled from performing this type of forest management. This could mean more risk to public safety and higher government spending on wildfire management, which is already around $2 billion.
  • Cascades study may rewrite the textbook on forest growth and deathOregon State University
    Two professors from Oregon State University conducted a 10-year study focusing on biomass growth in three Douglas-fir stands in the Willamette National Forest. They found that biomass had been accumulating steadily for the past 150 years, which is not sustainable and could lead to problems later on.
  • Let the kids play: Nature can take itTree Hugger
    Kids can be hard on the forest ecosystem, but this is not necessarily a bad thing. The kids that grow up making forts, picking flowers, entrapping animals and using nature in their games will feel more at ease in the wild and a stronger desire to protect it once they are older, leading to better conservation measures in the future.

GR25: A “Wild” Anniversary

by connie

Though Global ReLeaf is currently celebrating its 25th anniversary this year, there is another milestone that is certainly worth acknowledging — and it is assuredly a “wild” one! In 2015, American Forests is celebrating its fifth year of partnership with WildEarth Guardians in the “Land of Enchantment” (formally known as New Mexico). Where have we gone in five years, you ask?

Our partnership first began in 2010 — as you may have guessed, if you’re keeping track of our anniversary series! In that year, we began our first venture into stabilizing and reforesting several watersheds throughout New Mexico that were listed in critical condition. As water quantity and quality is always a concern of utmost importance — particularly in the American West, where droughts are not uncommon — American Forests targeted this project and partner for the incredible benefits that they could provide.

By reforesting areas around four major waterways — the Santa Fe River, Bluewater Creek, La Jencia Creek, and the Rio Puerco — we embarked on the first leg of a five-year journey of restoring various ecosystems that had been damaged by overgrazing, invasive plant establishment, and off-road vehicles. American Forests and WildEarth Guardians have also conjunctively addressed watershed needs in our subsequent years of partnership, including 2012, 2013, and 2014.

Of course, nature is an ever-changing force, and American Forests and WildEarth Guardians have already risen to address new challenges that have emerged since our initial partnership in 2010.  In 2011, the Los Conchas Fire, initially sparked by a power line, burned more than 150,000 acres, including 30,000 within the Valles Caldera National Preserve. The wildfire had been the largest in the state’s history, and threatened the native habitat of elk, golden eagles, coyotes, black bears, bobcats and more. In addition, the Rio de las Vacas — one of streams that we have subsequently targeted for riparian restoration — is home to one of the remaining 13 core populations of Rio Grande cutthroat trout, New Mexico’s state fish.

Indeed, our partnership with WildEarth Guardians has been a true testament to the astounding amount of impact and work that can be accomplished in five short years. In that time, we have planted 336,000 trees and shrubs and engaged hundreds of local volunteers. Of course, there’s still more to come — we’re planting an additional 50,000 trees this year. What do you think the next five years could bring to the watersheds of New Mexico?

Getting kids learning in and about the environment

by American Forests

By Erin Sandlin, Policy Intern

Nothing makes teachers feel better than when their students apply what they’ve learned in class to their lives outside of it.

I experienced this during my time helping a teacher develop an environmentally focused curriculum. We were able to use our own backyard to show the complex environmental relationships that surrounded us, and to see how we were connected to the ecosystem as well. I read journal entries about students noticing the clouds changing during a summer storm or pleasant encounters with buzzing bees during a walk to school. The students were fully engaged — on Friday afternoons I might add!

Studies have shown that integrating environmental education into school curriculums improves students’ academic performance and their propensity for environmental stewardship. Exposing youth to the wonders of nature through hands-on experiences has advantages in the academic world, but it is important to recognize the priceless benefits of showing students their connection to the natural world around them.

The benefits of environmental education are now receiving recognition in Congress. The No Child Left Inside Act was recently introduced and pushes for support of environmental education in the country’s public schools.

Senators Jack Reed (D-R.I.) and Mark Kirk (R-Ill.) and Congressmen John Sarbanes (D-Md.) and Mike Fitzpatrick (R-Pa.) showed their commitment to environmental education by introducing the act, which would provide grants to school districts to enhance opportunities for students to learn about, and in, the great outdoors.

American Forests has engaged hundreds of youth in our urban and wildland forest restoration projects.

American Forests has engaged hundreds of youth in our urban and wildland forest restoration projects.

At American Forests, we recognize the importance of providing young people with access to and education about our forests. Our Community ReLeaf projects have engaged schools and youth across the nation. These programs, in cities such as Atlanta, have given educational opportunities to students about the importance of trees. With our help, schools are involved in beneficial tree-planting programs.

American Forests is also a member of the Outdoor Alliance for Kids (OAK), which brings together more than seventy businesses and organizations with the common interest of connecting children, youth and families with the outdoors. OAK fully supports the No Child Left Inside Act and continues to advocate for outdoor learning opportunities. Their efforts have had a positive impact on student achievement and have stimulated students’ curiosity about the world around them.

American Forests is well aware of the beauty of our forests, and we are hopeful that the No Child Left Inside Act will give kids an opportunity to establish a healthy relationship with the environment. Rachel Carson recognized this when she wrote, “If a child is to keep alive his inborn sense of wonder, he needs the companionship of at least one adult who can share it, rediscovering with him the joy, excitement and mystery of the world we live in.”

Big Tree Madness returns for its third year

by American Forests

By Sydney Mucha, Communications Intern

It’s that time of year again! Big Tree Madness is about to begin and in case you missed last year, are just tuning in or need a refresher, here is a rundown of all you need to know before the games begin.

To make things more interesting this year, we have paired up selected champion trees with NCAA tournament-bound men’s basketball teams in the respective states, with the exception of last year’s finalists — defending champion Hawaii and runner-up Missouri — and Colorado, which had no in-state universities advancing to the field on Selection Sunday.

From the East, we have:

D.C. - chestnut oak Maryland - Kentucky coffeetree Pennsylvania - Dotted hawthorn West Virginia - Virginia pine
Georgetown Hoyas Maryland Terrapins Villanova Wildcats West Virginia Mountaineers

The four Champions from the South region:

Georgia - Post oak Kentucky - chinkapin oak Louisiana - live oak Virginia - American holly
Georgia Bulldogs Kentucky Wildcats LSU Tigers Virginia Cavaliers

Representing the Midwest:

Kansas - white mulberry Michigan - weeping willow Missouri - Ozark chinkapin Ohio - American sycamore
Kansas Jayhawks Michigan State Spartans Ohio State Buckeyes

And last, but not least, our Champions from the West:

California - Coast live oak Colorado - Scotch pine Hawaii - Wiliwili Washington - Western redcedar
San Diego State Aztecs Gonzaga Bulldogs

So there you have it, this year’s Big Tree Madness bracket! And now onto the fun part — how to vote. All voting will take place via American Forests’ Facebook page, so if you aren’t following us yet, do so now. You will have 24 hours to vote on each matchup every weekday with voting starting at 10:00 am and ending at 9:59 am the next day. We will have one match-up per day starting on March 17, ending with the championship on April 6 — the same day as the men’s NCAA basketball final. The Ultimate Champion Tree will be announced the next day.

We will announce the winner of every matchup on Facebook so you can keep track at home or with the bracket on our website. Ultimately, the winner of Big Tree Madness is in your hands so stand behind your favorite school, your home state, the coolest big tree or the best species. Mark your calendars and tune into the battle of big trees — and don’t forget to tell your friends!

Big Tree Madness is part of the American Forests National Big Tree Program. American Forests thanks the program’s premier sponsor, The Davey Tree Expert Company.

Forest Digest — Week of March 6, 2015

by American Forests

Well the storm has passed and spring is just around the corner — 14 days, but who’s counting? Help pass the time with this latest issue of Forest Digest.

  • Genetic data can help predict how pine forests will cope with climate
    Genetics play an important factor when it comes to survival in the wild, but until now very few computer models took this into account. But thanks to researchers from the Forest Research Centre of Spain’s Institute for Agricultural Research (CIFOR-INIA), climate change models will now include data on tree genetics to determine how trees will respond to the warming temperatures.
  • Direct evidence that drought-weakened Amazonian forests ‘inhale less carbon’
    Researchers from Oxford University have found that tropical trees stricken by drought take up less carbon dioxide than healthier ones. The three-year study covering 13 plots in Brazil, Peru and Bolivia measured the rate of growth and photosynthesis — the process through which trees convert CO2 to oxygen — only to find that photosynthesis decreased about 10 percent in a six-month period.
  • Satellites give scientists unprecedented views of insect outbreaks in
    For years forest managers have relied on airplanes to survey the damage mountain pine beetle and western spruce budworm inflict on Western forests, but that’s about to change! Satellite images that show more detail can now be used to understand the cyclic nature of outbreaks how the insects spread, and what the forest does to repair itself.
This big tree received 59,836 votes, showing just how much Estonians love their trees. Photo Credit: Kalmer Saar

This big tree received 59,836 votes, showing just how much Estonians love their trees. Photo Credit: Kalmer Saar

  • Estonia oak takes top prize in European Tree of the Year competitionMother Nature Network
    A large, 150-year-old oak tree in Orissaare, Estonia took home the title of Europe’s best tree, a contest run by the Environmental Partnership Association, a six country community-based conservation group. The contest focuses on a tree’s story rather than size, beauty or age, and this tree won the judges over by beating the two-time champion from Hungary.
  • Traditional beliefs promote sustainability in West
    Farmers in Liberia are making a name for sustainable farming in West Africa. These farmers value sacred forests and ancestral land more than short-term economic growth and profits and have been practicing this way of life for decades.