Forest Digest — Week of December 15

by Christopher Horn

It’s the last Forest Digest of 2014! With some of our staff out over the next few weeks, we won’t be reporting on the forestry news from around the world until Jan. 9!

  • “Report suggests forest-cutting can have an immediate effect on climate”The Washington Post
    Researchers say in a new report released this week that cutting down forests like the Amazon not only releases carbon — stored by the trees — into the atmosphere, but directly and more immediately affects the climate, from changes in rainfall patterns to rising temperatures. The report also suggests that omplete deforestation of the Amazon would alter rainfall in the much of the United States.
  • “U.S. Forest Service considers knocking back old-growth forests to benefit wildlife”The Times-Picayune
    THe U.S. Forest Service is considering changing management practices to replace old-growth stands of forest with younger stands in an effort to help populations of wildlife. According to Forest Service data, wildlife species that depend on young forests have experienced population declines over the last two decades in western North Carolina’s Nantahala and Pisgah national forests.
  • “Yurok tribe hopes California’s cap-and-trade can save a way of life”Los Angeles Times
    Forestry crews from the Yurok tribe, California’s largest Native American tribe, lead an inventory of their lands, in hopes of making money through the state’s cap-and-trade program. Rather than use their trees for timber harvest, the Yurok can manage their forests for carbon storage, selling credits to oil companies and other businesses that must reduce emissions.

Forest Digest — Week of December 1

by American Forests

We hope you had a happy Thanksgiving with your family and friends! Even if you’re still stuffed from the turkey — or Tofurky for our vegetarians out there — we have a healthy helping of the latest forest news, so check out this week’s Forest Digest:

  • “In a Queens Forest, Compiling a Picture of Urban Ecology”The New York Times
    In Alley Pond Park in Queens, N.Y., there is a variety of instruments — a webcam and a wind vane, humidity and temperature sensors, rain gauges and instruments to measure solar radiation — all attached to a hardy oak tree. This is part of the U.S. Forest Service’s new “smart forest” initiative, in which data is collected from selected woodlands to help scientists manage landscapes in a changing climate. Dr. Lindsey Rustad, a research ecologist with the Forest Service and co-director of the USDA’s Northeast Climate Hub, says “we know relatively little about what’s going on in these forest ecosystems. Eighty percent of the population lives in urban areas, so understanding urban forest ecology is critical.”
  • “Mountain beetle threatens Minnesota’s pine forests”Minnesota Public Radio
    Over the past couple decades, mountain pine beetles have devoured 45 million acres of pine trees in western North America — the world’s largest forest insect outbreak in recorded history. Now the beetles are headed east, and Minnesota’s majestic pines may be threatened. The Minnesota Department of Agriculture is proposing a quarantine in hopes of keeping the beetles at bay and protecting the state’s nearly 200 million pine trees.
  • “Still a burning issue: Forest thinning plan almost done”The Arizona Republic
    The Forest Service is nearing completion of a plan for the first phase of the Four Forest Restoration Initiative (4FRI). It aims to use mechanical thinning, prescribed fires and other techniques to prevent catastrophic burning across 2.4 million acres of the Kaibab, Coconino, Tonto, and Apache-Sitgreaves national forests. This is being done to address the massive wildfires that have destroyed more than half a million acres in northern Arizona’s ponderosa-pine forests.
  • “New Research on Smart Phone Training for Citizen Scientists”Alliance for Community Trees
    New research funded by Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry shows that smartphone-based training is as effective as in-person training in helping citizen scientists to recognize invasive plants. These results show potential to help grow the field of citizen science, as University of Massachusetts researchers noted app-based video training provided comparable — but less expensive — results to in-person delivery in the context of invasive plant identification.
  • “Deforestation may be at root of Brazil drought”Associated Press
    In a new study, scientists say decades of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest has created drought conditions in southeastern Brazil, home to 40 percent of the country’s population. The cutting of trees in the Amazon is hindering the rainforest’s ability to absorb carbon from the air and get water through tree roots to supply vast “sky rivers,” which generate more than two-thirds of the rainfall in southeastern Brazil.
  • “Cut down your own Christmas tree”KRDO – Colorado Springs
    The Forest Service has a deal — for only $10, you can get a permit to cut down your own tree in part of the Pike National Forest. Why? It’s beneficial to the forests. “We do this to help reduce the fuel load of the trees that are on the forest land,” Scott Steiner of the Forest Service said. Check your local Forest Service office to see if this is offered at your district!

A winter showcase of trees

by Christopher Horn

Later this month, five artists will exhibit their tree-inspired works at Diehl Gallery in Jackson, Wyo., the popular travel destination located in the heart of the Greater Yellowstone Area.

“Winter Arboretum” features artists Jeri Eisenberg, Susan Goldsmith, Peter Hoffer, Anastasia Kimmett, and Richard Painter, whose works were inspired by the splendor of trees and how these artists have interpreted it. A portion of the proceeds from the show, which runs from Dec. 18 to Jan. 31, will benefit American Forests and our Endangered Western Forests initiative.

Winter #1 by Anastasia Kimmett. Oil pastel and acrylic on paper.

Winter #1 by Anastasia Kimmett. Oil pastel and acrylic on paper.

On Thursday, Dec. 18, gallery owner Mariam Diehl will host an opening night reception from 5:00 to 8:00 p.m. Additionally the gallery is open during Jackson’s Holiday Celebration and Art Walk on Saturday, Dec. 27 from 5:00 to 8:00 p.m.

If you’re unable to visit the gallery in person, the artists’ works are available for purchase remotely. Simply identify the piece and call or email the gallery for acquisition information

The Endangered Western Forests initiative is a collaborative effort coordinated by American Forests to help restore the threatened, high-elevation whitebark pine ecosystems. While thousands of acres of whitebark pine trees have succumbed to mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust, both exacerbated by climate change, there are many stands of disease-resistant trees that are proving to be an essential part of the solution to restore these valuable forests.

To achieve this goal, American Forests and our partners have employed a range of strategies, including:

  • Planting more than 100,000 disease-resistant seedlings,
  • Collecting cones from mature, disease-resistant specimens,
  • Applying pheromone patches on more than 10,000 disease-resistant trees to ward off mountain pine beetle infestation,
  • Assisting on-the-ground partners with management and community outreach plans.

Together, with the support of our on-the-ground partners as well as generous gifts from the likes of Diehl Gallery, our members and people like you, we can ensure a future for this critical species.

Plant trees while you shop

by American Forests

Each year American Forests is pleased to present a selection of some of our amazing partners who give a little bit back each time you shop. So if you’re tired of getting the same-old same-old, why not check out some of the options below? And don’t forget, you can always give the Gift of Trees!

This global provider of Holiday ecards for business has supported American Forests by offsetting more than 65,000 tons of CO2 emissions! For every ecard ordered, the company plants 10 trees with us. So if you, your friends and family, and/or your company is sending ecards this holiday season, why not try out eCO2 Greetings Ecards and help protect our forests.

Since 1995, Eddie Bauer has offered customers the ability to add $1 to their checkout total to plant trees with American Forests. Along with Eddie Bauer’s own generous contributions, more than 6 million trees have been planted to date by people just like you! Make sure you select the “add a dollar to plant a tree” option at the checkout to help us plant millions more.

This socially conscious and environmentally focused shoe company is planting 50,000 trees through American Forests’ Global ReLeaf. Check out their retractable spiked boots and hyper grip shoes that will help make winter bearable while also looking chic on your feet.

All-natural skincare products that help plant trees might sound too good to be true, but Origins’ Plant-A-Tree initiative has helped plant more than 500,000 trees worldwide! Origins products are manufactured using a combination of renewable resources, wind energy and earth-friendly practices – the perfect gift for a green conscious recipient!

A cornucopia of useful items, gifts that wow and nature-inspired products. UncommonGoods not only offers gifts that are unique and uber cool, but through their Better to Give program, the company will also donate $1 to the charity of your choice – we hope you’ll pick us!

Originating in Florence, Italy, these eco-chic fashion watches were introduced to the United States in 2010. Made from repurposed wood, they can be found in both men’s and women’s styles. Each watch sold plants a tree with American Forests.

Fracking at George Washington National Forest

by Rebecca Turner

On Nov. 18, the U.S. Forest Service released the much-anticipated management plan for the George Washington National Forest. At the heart of that anticipation was whether the Forest Service would uphold a proposed ban of hydraulic fracturing in the forest — it would have been the first national forest to have such a ban. Instead, the Forest Service compromised, allowing hydraulic fracturing — known more familiarly as fracking — where leases already existed prior to the plan.

About one percent of the total 1.1 million acres in George Washington National Forest will be drilled using the hydarulic fracturing, or fracking, method. Photo credit: Aneta Kaluzna

About one percent of the total 1.1 million acres in George Washington National Forest will be drilled using the hydarulic fracturing, or fracking, method. Photo credit: Aneta Kaluzna

The Forest Service’s decision to allow fracking is counter to their mission to sustain the health, diversity and productivity of the nation’s forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations. While American Forests agrees with the multi-use mandate for our national forests, not all activities are good for our nation’s forests. Energy and mineral exploration does not sustain the health, diversity or the productivity of our forests. It threatens them.

George Washington National Forest contains more than 40 species of trees and 2,000 species of shrubs and herbaceous plants. The forest has 2,340 miles of perennial streams and 200 species of birds and 60 species of mammals. Overall, 53 federally-listed threatened or endangered animal and plant species call this forest home. As the largest and most popular national forest in the eastern U.S., it is a prominent recreational spot, with sites such as the Appalachian Trail, Mount Roger National Recreation Area, and Virginia Creeper Trail.

Every 10 to 15 years, national forests must update their management plans, and the George Washington management plan was up for its renewal in 2014. The Forest Land and Resource Management Plan for the George Washington National Forest was last revised in 1993, and the last draft was in 2011. That draft stated plans to ban fracking in the 1.1 million-acre forest — a ban that would have been a first for any national forest. American Forests has consistently advocated in support of this ban because of the potential risks to the watershed, quality of drinking water, and wildlife.

The new federal management plan reverses the 2011 draft’s intent of a total ban on fracking. Instead, it restricts drilling to 10,000 acres already leased for oil and gas drilling, about one percent of the total national forest.

Quite simply, fracking damages delicate forest ecosystems. The process of hydraulic fracturing releases shale gas and oil by injecting water and unknown chemicals into the earth, and has been known to cause significant groundwater contamination as well as dangerous levels of methane emissions, a hazardous greenhouse gas. According to researchers, fracking has also been linked to earthquakes, indicating that this practice has a significant effect on the geology of the planet.

Another concern with fracking in the George Washington National Forest involves the James and Potomac rivers. These rivers feed the Chesapeake Bay, which is the focus of a multibillion-dollar restoration project directed by the Environmental Protection Agency. If these rivers are polluted as a result of fracking, they could interfere with the progress on this restoration project, as well as affect the drinking water for as many as five million people.

On the plus side, the plan nearly doubles riparian protections and strongly recommends that Congress designate a 90,000-acre scenic area on Shenandoah Mountain and 27,000 additional acres of new wilderness. Unfortunately, this is not enough. The continued leasing for oil and gas is counterintuitive to the popular use of the largest eastern national forest — which sees about one million hikers, campers, hunter, anglers and wildlife watchers annually — and contrary to the mission of the Forest Service to ensure healthy and resilient forests.

American Forests to participate in #GivingTuesday

by American Forests

#GivingTuesday logo.Tired of the crowds and hassle of post-Thanksgiving shopping days such as Black Friday and Cyber Monday?

Try something different this year and add #GivingTuesday — Dec. 2 — to your post-Thanksgiving plans.

The mission of #GivingTuesday is to inspire a national day of giving at the start of the holiday season. #GivingTuesday celebrates and encourages charitable support of nonprofit organizations across the country. American Forests is proud to once again partner with this incredible one-day event. Please support us on Dec. 2 by donating now to help restore forests, create wildllife habitat and improve the health of the planet.

Share your #GivingTuesday support on Facebook or Twitter and get your friends involved too!

We thank you for your continued support of American Forests!

Forest Digest — Week of November 17

by American Forests

There’s an international flavor kicking off this week’s Forest Digest. Get all your forest news this week, as there will be no Forest Digest next week when American Forests and our staff celebrate Thanksgiving.

  • “Pew, Pew, Pew! NASA Space Lasers to Map Earth’s Forests in 3D”
    A new laser instrument developed for the International Space Station is expected to generate 3D maps of Earth’s forests. The instrument, called Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI), uses lidar, a special kind of laser technology, to create detailed 3D maps and measure the biomass of forests. The maps will allow scientists to estimate the total amount of carbon stored inside the planet’s trees. One of the most poorly quantified components of the carbon cycle is the net balance between forest disturbance and regrowth, and these advances will help monitor forest degradation, adding to the critical data needed to mitigate the effects of climate change.
  • “Fracking to be permitted in GW National Forest”ABC News
    Environmentalists and energy boosters compromised a deal that would allow fracking in the largest national forest in the eastern United States, but would make most of its wood off-limits to drilling. The federal management plan reverses an outright ban on hydraulic fracturing in the 1.1 million-acre forest that the U.S. Forest Service had proposed in 2011. A total ban would have been a first for America’s national forests, which are commonly leased for mining, timber and drilling. However, some environmentalists were pleased that at least some balance was struck between energy development and conservation.
  • “Study: 11 million acres of dry NW forests need restoration”KTVZ – Central Oregon News
    More than 11 million acres of dry forest in Oregon and Washington are in need of restoration, according to a new study by scientists for The Nature Conservancy and the U.S. Forest Service. The study, published in Forest Ecology and Management, is a comprehensive, data-driven analysis of where, how much and what kind of activities are needed across the fire-adapted forest landscape to restore ecological processes.
  • “Quaking aspen trees dance with life”Mother Nature Network
    Why are the aspen trees so unique? Well, perhaps because it has several species, with only two that can be found in North America. Or the fact that the aspen is a tree of many names, like the trembling aspen, white poplar, or even “popple.” The National Park Service even says that “it may be better not to think of aspens as trees at all”, as they grow from a large underground network of roots and spout up via asexual reproduction. They are uniformly yellow because each tree is identical, part of the same organism and sprouting from the same system of roots. This solidarity lends itself to a long life, allowing us to admire its beauty for quite some time.

What do the 2014 midterm elections mean for forests?

by American Forests

By Anne Regan, Policy Intern

The 2014 midterm elections were known for a lot of things, among them:

  • the worst voter turnout in 72 years, with just 36.3 percent of eligible voters participating, according to the New York Times;
  • the Democrats facing a record-low of only 36 percent of Americans saying they have a favorable opinion of the party;
  • and Tom Brokaw answering his phone on live television.

However, there is concern with the 114th Congress’ impact on the U.S. energy and environment agenda. The Obama administration has moved ahead with its Climate Action Plan, a strategy to use regulations to address global warming without action from Congress. The White House climate deal with China shows that he is still clearly in the game. But with a Republican-controlled House and Senate, and losing key urban forestry supporters like Senators Mark Udall (D-Colo.) and Kay Hagan (D-N.C.), what does this say about current and future environmental legislation — specifically ones that American Forests supports?

In terms of EPA carbon regulations, Sen. Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.), newly re-elected and on the verge of becoming Senate Majority Leader, has repeatedly said he would use riders to challenge the EPA, using this high-pressure tactic to challenge Obama through must-pass spending bills that only require a simple majority to pass.

In addition, Sen. James Inhofe (R-Okla.), a climate change skeptic, is likely to lead the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee and use this position to try to weaken and scrutinize the EPA and its climate change and environmental protection agenda.

As daunting as this may seem, we realize that congressional committees and subcommittees play a major role in dictating environmental legislation that could overcome these opposing players with different environmental agendas. American Forests will continue to work with these newly elected Congressional members and others on the Hill to create a more diverse group of urban and wildland forest supporters.

For instance, Rep. Rob Bishop’s (R-Utah) victory over Democratic businesswoman Donna McAleer likely guarantees he’ll succeed retiring Rep. Doc Hastings (R-Wash.) as chairman of the House Natural Resources Committee, therefore acquiring greater access to push sweeping legislation that affects energy development, wildlands, recreation, conservation and rural counties. Rep. Bishop is known amongst green groups as a good listener, paying attention to their ideas for designating new protected wilderness areas and extending key conservation programs.

American Forests sees the results from this election as an opportunity to work with members such as Rep. Bishop in discussing the issues relating to forest conservation and preservation to make sure these concerns are heard. We look forward to building new relationships with a more diverse group of urban and wildland forest champions — no matter which political party may control the House and Senate.

Forest Digest — Week of November 10

by American Forests

There’s an international flavor kicking off this week’s Forest Digest. Check it out!

  • “US and China reach historic climate change deal, vow to cut emissions”CNN
    U.S. President Barack Obama and Chinese President Xi Jinping announced both countries will curb their greenhouse gas emissions over the next two decades. Under this agreement, the U.S. would cut its 2005 level of carbon emissions by 26-28 percent before the year 2025. China would peak its carbon emissions by 2030 and will also aim to get 20 percent of its energy from zero-carbon emission sources by the same year. The Center for Climate and Energy Solutions said the joint announcement is “an extremely hopeful sign” and will help get other countries on board.
  • “Obama, Putin plant trees at APEC summit”The Washington Post
    Heads of state from the 21 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies, including the U.S., Russia and China, attended a tree planting ceremony on Tuesday in Beijing. The symbolic presentation demonstrates each countries’ willingness to take the next step to work together on global environmental issues.
  • “Peru’s forests store more CO2 than US emits in a year, research shows “The Guardian
    New research shows Peru, the most accurately carbon-mapped country in the world, stores nearly seven billion metric tons of carbon stocks, which is more than U.S. carbon emissions in 2013, calculated at 5.38 billion tons. Most of Peru’s carbon storage occurs in its Amazon rainforest, the second-largest area of Amazon rainforest after Brazil.
  • “Protecting native forests more valuable than logging”
    New research has found mountain ash forests provide more value to the community and the global climate when protected and not logged. Known as ecosystem services, the results from research scientists at the Australian National University, show that protecting forests by ending logging could double the amount of carbon stored in trees. Scientific evidence also shows that natural disasters such as bushfires do not have as great an impact on carbon storage as harvesting the forest. These results are being presented at the World Parks Congress in Sydney this week.
  • “Tree diseases can help forests: What’s bad for a seedling can be good for biodiversity”
    University of Utah biologists found that pathogens that kill tree seedlings actually can make forests more diverse. Because seedlings of disease-sensitive tree species cannot survive in the wetter forests and drought-sensitive tree species cannot survive in the drier forests, different tree species inhabit the wetter and drier forests even though they are only 30 miles apart. In other words, tree pathogens contribute to the staggering diversity of trees in tropical forests.
  • “Seeing the forest for the trees: H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest”The Daily Barometer
    Deep within the Willamette National Forest, researchers are changing the way forest ecology is understood and how forests are managed. The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest is one of 80 experimental forests in the U.S., but one of only six Long-Term Ecology Research (LTER) sites in the nation. LTER sites are funded by the National Science Foundation. Sherri Johnson, a courtesy assistant research professor at Oregon State University and an ecologist for the U.S. Forest Service, states that the forest is special because you do not have to worry about logging and the effects of human activity.

Strengthening enforcement to protect our forests

by Loose Leaf Contributor

By Faith Campbell, Emeritus environmental advocate and tree-pest expert

As my earlier blogs have demonstrated, highly damaging, tree-killing insects are introduced to North America in crates, pallets and other forms of wood packaging material (WPM).

Diseased and dead ash trees — victims of the emerald ash borer — can wreak havoc on communities. Photo credit: Major Hefje, Ann Arbor, Mich.

Diseased and dead ash trees — victims of the emerald ash borer — can wreak havoc on communities. Photo credit: Major Hefje, Ann Arbor, Mich.

Since it was first detected in 1996, U.S. and Canadian authorities have spent more than $500 million trying to eliminate the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB). These efforts have eradicated ALB from Chicago, portions of the New York City metropolitan area, and Toronto. However, authorities are still dealing with large outbreaks in Massachusetts and Ohio; with an expanded outbreak on Long Island; and with a new introduction near Toronto.

The emerald ash borer has escaped containment efforts and spread to more than 170,000 square miles in 23 states and two Canadian provinces. More than 200 million trees have been killed. Managing dead ash trees is costing cities and homeowners billions of dollars1. Unique plant communities — especially the black ash-dominated wetlands of the upper Midwest and southern Canada, and the pumpkin ash-dominated wetlands of the Atlantic coast — are at risk of severe disruption.

The redbay ambrosia beetle and its associated fungus that causes laurel wilt disease have also spread beyond control. The U.S. Forest Service expects that redbay trees will have lost 90 percent of their basal area by 2030 — just 25 years after detection of the disease.

The palamedes swallowtail butterfly feeds on many plants and trees, including ash and redbay. Photo credit: J F Butler, University Florida.

The palamedes swallowtail butterfly feeds on many plants and trees, including ash and redbay. Photo credit: J F Butler, University Florida.

Both ash and redbay are vitally important food sources for numerous insect species, including the palamedes swallowtail butterfly (Papilio palamedes).

We know that tree-killing pests, including the ALB, continue to be found in WPM entering the country despite adoption of international standards.

In the third blog of the series I said we need to do more and suggested steps importing businesses can take to minimize the likelihood that insect larvae will be hiding in their packaging.

Government authorities also need to do more – they should enforce regulations more aggressively. Currently, only one in 100 shipments detected to be in violation is actually subjected to a financial penalty. I doubt that this rate is sufficient to motivate importers to ensure that their shipments are clean. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) needs to work with the Department of Homeland Security’s Bureau of Customs and Border Protection to increase the likelihood that shipments that violate the regulations are penalized.

This concludes my posts on wood packaging material and its role in transporting invasive insects and diseases. Please stay tuned to Loose Leaf for my next series: Tree pests and plant imports.

1Aukema, J.E., B. Leung, K. Kovacs, C. Chivers, K. O. Britton, J. Englin, S.J. Frankel, R. G. Haight, T. P. Holmes, A. Liebhold, D.G. McCullough, B. Von Holle.. 2011. Economic Impacts of Non-Native Forest Insects in the Continental United States PLoS One September 2011 (Volume 6 Issue 9); and Kovacs, K., R. Mercader, R. Haight, N. Siegert, D. McCullough, and A. M. Liebhold. 2011. The influence of satellite populations of emerald ash borer on projected economic costs in U.S. communities, 2010-2020. Journal of Environmental Management 92: 2170-2181.

Views of Loose Leaf’s guest bloggers are their own and not necessarily the position of American Forests.