- Oldest Tree In The U.K. Is Changing Its Sex, And Scientists Are Shocked — Huffington Post
After what has thought to have been a nearly 5,000 year life, a tree in in Perthshire, Scotland has a new trick up its trunk and is beginning to sprout berries.
- Conservation groups describe devastation caused by wildfires — USA Today
In a Senate Agriculture hearing on Thursday, witnesses from a variety of conservation organizations testified to the extreme devastation caused by wildfires, not just for the 9.4 million acres, but much more.
- Deep In The Amazon, An Unseen Battle Over The Most Valuable Trees — NPR
A group of rubber tappers find themselves on the front lines of the war against illegal logging in the Amazon rain forest.
- California Seeks Federal Aid as Bark Beetles Destroy Trees — New York Times
With the continuation of the four-year drought in California, trees have become devastatingly vulnerable to the threat of bark beetles, causing Governor Jerry Brown to declare a state of emergency.
By Amelia Loeb, Communications Intern
In this fun list, we’ve highlighted a tree species native to each continent to showcase the beautiful diversity of trees across our planet. Take a look at the science behind how certain trees’ functions have adapted to their environments.
Native to the eastern and southwestern United States
What makes it special? Devil’s Walkingsticks get their name from the thorns protruding from their thin trunk, giving the tree a menacing appearance.
What’s the science? The thorns are specialized stem tissue, evolved to give the plant protection from predators who have a penchant for its black, juicy, berry-shaped fruit. The thorns are either found in a spiral pattern up the truck or in rings, depending on growth rates.
Monkey Puzzle tree
Native to Chile
What makes it special? Well, for starters, it’s the national tree of Chile. Its name comes from an Englishman in the 1800s who said the branches of the tree would puzzle a monkey climbing up it.1 Second, Monkey Puzzle trees are conifers (a tree that has cones) which are uncommon south of the Northern Hemisphere. Third, they can live for a long time; the oldest known species was 700 years old and fossils have dated back 60 million years.
What’s the science? Their irregular shape comes from age-related hormones stimulating different areas of growth. In addition, its thick bark protects the buds which helps the tree withstand wildfires, enabling it to grow for years.
Native to Madagascar and Africa
What makes it special? Well, it’s a massive tree with an uncommon shape. One tree in South Africa has a bar inside with room for 60 people. As to its shape, some have said that it looks like the devil tore the tree up and thrust it back into the ground upside down. This folk legend pulls into question the irregular spreading of branches, and as a side note, why irregularly shaped trees seem to be connected to the devil.
What’s the science? The tissues in the bark are specialized to store massive amounts of water during seasonal droughts. The shape of the branches allow the plant to receive maximum sunlight in its flat terrain.
Native to Northern Europe
What makes it special? Its bark peels, called exfoliating bark, giving it a white patterned look. American Forests planted birch trees in Iceland with support of the Icelandic Forestry Association in 2011. This project helped reforest 20 acres and improved soil conditions, which is pretty cool!
What’s the science? Some trees exfoliate their bark in order to save water. In other species it allows a gas exchange necessary for photosynthesis, which then allows the tree to grow quicker. By shedding bark, any lichen growing on the bark, which hamper the light absorption of the photosynthetic bark cells, is sloughed off. The exact reason why silver birch trees have exfoliating bark is unknown.
Rainbow Eucalyptus (mindanao gum)
Native to the Philippines and Pacific Asia
What makes it special? Its bark looks like a watercolor painting.
What’s the science? Its bark exfoliates in the summer, revealing streaks of pastel greens, reds, oranges, grey, greyish purples and blues. These colors are created by pigments and are less vibrant when not grown in tropical areas. Their colors are thought to help absorb a wider range of light so that the plant can photosynthesize more.
Moreton Bay fig
Native to tropical areas such as parts of Queensland and northern New South Wales
What makes it special? Its buttressed and aerial roots.
What’s the science? Roots that extend from the base of the tree are called buttressed roots. They act as a support so that the plant can grow in the shallow soils of Australia. They’re called buttressed roots because they are reminiscent of the architectural supports.Aerial roots hang in the air to absorb oxygen. This often occurs in species that grow in soils that are dense and don’t have a lot of air space, as in the case for the Moreton Bay fig. Air is essential for roots to absorb nutrients.The roots are also allelopathic, meaning they exude as substance that affects other species. In this case, the roots of the Moreton Bay fig are toxic to many other species of plants so that other plants don’t naturally grow around it.
Most trees cannot grow in Antarctica because of the limited water supply. Plants, such as trees, have a vascular system, similar to humans, which relies on water as a transport. When the temperature is well below freezing, the vascular system cannot conduct water because it has turned to ice. Some plants can withstand the near constant freezing temperatures and lack of water, such as mosses or grasses, but trees cannot. Trees can also survive periods of freezing temperatures by going into dormancy, but not for the majority of the year. Also, trees require an extensive root system to support their height. Since most water is found at the top of the soil, the roots can’t grow deep enough into the dense frozen soil to support a tree. Plants found in frozen tundras are small, like grasses, algea or shrubs, though scientists have found evidence of pollen frozen in ice which hints that the climate may have been warmer.
1 Note: Monkeys are not native to Chile, so the metaphor is a factual stretch but fun nonetheless.
By Andrew Bell, Policy Intern
In The Partnership for Trees’ fourth year, American Forests and Alcoa Foundation teamed up to plant more than 220,000 trees and restore nearly 900 acres. Twenty-four projects across the world were financially secured and given a push towards achieving their goals. All the while, we drew ever nearer to the millionth tree planted since 2011. Of course, just as important as getting trees in the ground is the commitment to engaging communities and the next generation of forest stewards. Two of the projects that embodied that commitment took the partnership to a college campus in California and an industrial plant in Russia.
On the domestic front, California State University’s Channel Islands provided a unique opportunity. The Camarillo campus is home to thousands of hardworking students, yet possessed few trees and green places to work. A master plan to beautify the campus was drawn up, and The Partnership for Trees prepared to do some heavy-lifting.
The site was prepared, the holes were dug and the trees were in prime position. The scene was set for the tour de force that followed: 123 university students, staff and Alcoa employees planted 506 trees across 22 acres of the campus in just three hours. The student volunteers had already been trained to act as “team leaders,” while university and Alcoa staff provided quality control. The effort was so swift and efficient that Maria Calderas — Alcoa Fastening Systems’ Human Resources Manager — described the event as the most they had ever accomplished in a single volunteer project of that nature.
Together, the alliance brought beauty to the campus, provided habitat for monarch butterflies, mitigated the amplified city heat, cultivated a green backdrop for educational activity and bolstered the campus’ future tree coverage by up to 60%. And, even when it came time to admire the day and all of its accomplishments through the rearview mirror, Alcoa Foundation found a way to bring even more to the table (quite literally). As a surprise, they provided lunch for the entire group of volunteers at the end of the planting, an expense that CSU Channel Islands had planned on covering through their budget. This allowed the university to take the excess funds and plant 12 more trees. Thanks to Alcoa Foundation’s generosity, the day’s lasting impact amplified even further.
On the other side of the world, the “Business to Forest” tree planting project devised by Russian Carbon Fund provided a contrasting example of what’s in play with even the most extensive planning. In the wake of a disastrous 2010 wildfire that burned nearly 250,000 acres in the Moscow region of Russia, the need became clear to restore boreal forest belts in hopes of curbing desertification and the depletion of pastures and fruitful soils. This is why the Russian Carbon Fund reached out to American Forests and Alcoa Foundation to plant 20,000 Scots pines over 12 acres of land near an Alcoa plant that was ravaged by wildfire. But, the Administration of Belaya Kalitva expressed interest in planting 350 grown trees directly in town, and Alcoa Russia found good reason to honor that request.
So, on October 11th, The Partnership for Trees eagerly joined 1,300 Belaya Kalitva citizens in celebrating their “Tree Planting Day” holiday, a day where 3,000 trees and bushes were planted alongside the 350 provided by American Forests and Alcoa Foundation. Two weeks later, the partnership undertook a tree planting event with 150 Alcoa employees and local orphans that resulted in the planting of more than 11,000 Scots pines. Encompassing both events were educational opportunities for parents, teachers and grade school students as well as students in masters programs. With topics ranging from planting practices to sustainable urban forestry and its products, there was valuable knowledge to be gained for all. Thanks to this multifaceted approach, Belaya Kalitva has seen a proliferation in non-timber forest products (NTFP) and a growth in local jobs providing care for these trees for generations to come. The entire experience united business, government and society in building a socially and ecologically stronger community.
Find out the latest in forestry news in this week’s Forest Digest!
- Indonesia’s forest fires threaten a third of world’s wild orangutans — The Guardian
Recent satellite images have revealed that, since July, several thousand fires have reached Indonesia’s national parks and primary forests, threatening nearly one-third of the world’s population of wild orangutans, as well as other endangered species.
- Saving a Rare Tree Worlds Away — The New York Times
Botanists’ efforts to save a rare tree species, Betula chichibuensis, a birch native to Japan, offers a glimpse of hope for a species that, two decades ago, only had 21 remaining trees in the wild.
- Researchers analyze the benefits of urban trees — Phys.org
While the many environmental and health benefits of urban trees are known, researchers are getting citizens involved in documenting city trees’ impact on the conservation of water.
- Planting Trees May Boost Riverbed Animals’ Ability To Fight Climate Change, Researchers Say — Nature World News
A recent study revealed that strategically planting trees near riverbeds can improve river ecosystems’ resiliency by providing not only temperature control but also vital food sources for aquatic insects, which impacts a host of other species.
By Sydney Mucha, Communications Intern
Even before 2010, Haiti was considered a struggling country. The land was exploited for natural resources, farming took over and what little infrastructure there was had not been kept up to date. Then, the unimaginable happened in 2010; an earthquake struck on January 12th, killing anywhere from 100,000-200,000 people, damaging houses, buildings and the natural habitat.
Now, more than five years after the destruction, Haiti is still trying to rebuild their cities and restore their natural habitats. To help with this process, American Forests has partnered with the Quixote Center in Gros-Morne, Artibonite, Haiti. This grassroots organization focuses on empowering the Haitian people by training them in sustainable agricultural practices in order to gain economic freedoms and to enhance their understanding of the environments around them.
As part of this project and initiative, volunteers are to plant 50,000 trees across 3 acres in the Tet Mon forest to prevent further soil erosion and runoff, which can be a hindrance to farming. At the Jean Marie Vincent Formation Center, local farmers are being taught how to cultivate trees and practice sustainable farming measures such as composting, sustainable harvesting of trees and the use of riparian buffers to prevent soil erosion. This will help the locals learn to care for their surroundings as well as provide a sustainable income.
The group also has a contract with Green Schools, where adult trainings focus on water tables, erosion, soil enhancement and restoration discussions. The school also teaches children how to care and cultivate tress, the benefits of having trees on farms and how to grow and harvest them sustainably in hopes that they will share this information with their parents and remember it once they are older.
With the help of American Forests and the green initiatives set by the Quixote Center, Haiti is on the path of continued forest restoration and sustainable management of its land by the Haitian people.
 Sarigianopoulos, Rena. (2015). Haiti still hurting five years after devastating earthquake. Minneapolis KARE News.
We’re nearing the finish line, Global ReLeaf enthusiasts! If there’s one story that conjures images of finish lines, it would be none other than the illustrious tale of the tortoise and the hare — a tale that reminds each of us of the virtues of patience. After all, slow and steady wins the race!
But, what about the race to save the tortoise itself?
American Forests has a longstanding history of protecting and restoring the longleaf pine and the gopher tortoise. This small terrestrial turtle is known as a keystone species throughout its native longleaf range, which extends across the southeast United States — from southern Virginia all the way to Louisiana. Within its longleaf habitat, gopher tortoises are known for their extraordinary digging capacity — they often dig burrows for protection from fire, weather and predators and can dig burrows up to 48 feet in length and nearly 10 feet deep. Furthermore, tortoises are great at sharing; other species often utilize these burrows for shelter, resulting in quite a few neighbors for the small tortoise! In fact, over 360 species utilize these tortoise-dug burrows for protection, including gopher frogs, burrowing owls and the eastern indigo snake.
Longleaf forests have faced threats of their own, and the subsequent loss of habitat has been devastating for the gopher tortoise. Before European settlement, longleaf pine forest dominated nearly 90 million acres across the south. However, clear cutting and other such practices have nearly decimated the longleaf pine ecosystem — currently longleaf pine has been relegated to less than 5 percent of its prior native range.
All hope is not lost, however. Beginning with one of our pioneer longleaf projects, American Forests planted more than 22,000 longleaf pine seedlings in Mississippi in 1994 to restore habitat for this vulnerable turtle and other species. Since this initial endeavor, more than 7 million longleaf pine trees have been planted in our 25-year Global ReLeaf history. We are proud to note that these restoration activities are continuing today — including more than 100,000 longleaf pine being planted in Florida in 2015.
On Monday, October 26, 2015, American Forests hosted a ceremonial tree planting at the East Capitol Urban Farm in honor of its 140th anniversary and to recognize the signing of a new MOU with the U.S. Forest Service. During the ceremony, U.S. Forest Service Chief Tom Tidwell gave the following remarks:
“Good afternoon! It’s a pleasure to be here. My thanks to our partners in the East Capitol Urban Farm and to American Forests for hosting this event. The Forest Service is honored to be part of the East Capitol Urban Farm through our participation in the Urban Waters Federal Partnership.
In honor of the longstanding partnership between the Forest Service and American Forests, we are here this afternoon to plant a tree. We are also here to sign a memorandum of understanding to help us map out the future of our partnership.
Thank you, Scott, for your thoughtful remarks about how we have worked together over so many decades to protect and restore America’s forests for the benefit of present and future generations.
I was struck by the theme of your remarks: that it’s not either/or — it’s both. It’s not either progress or nature … not either jobs or the environment … not either gray infrastructure or green. These are false dichotomies.
In the remainder of my remarks, I will take up the same theme with respect to partnerships and collaboration. This is part of what we are here to celebrate today.
As you know, our nation was founded on the principles of individual liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Those principles are enshrined in our constitution, our laws, and our culture. You will find them in the writings of great conservationist visionaries like Gifford Pinchot … like President Theodore Roosevelt.
Before conservation was born, however, industrial interests insisted that government had no place in protecting our nation’s natural heritage … in conserving the great forests of our nation. In 1907, a leader in Congress, Joe Cannon of Illinois, put it this way: “Not one damn cent for scenery!”
That set the stage for a false dichotomy that has dogged us to this day. The dichotomy is that it’s either government or the private sector … either a command model or the profit motive … either top-down or bottom-up management … when, in fact, we need multiple partners and perspectives to ensure the future of our forests.
We here today can attest to that. The United States is a model of mixed forest ownership that is relatively rare around the world. We have vast areas of privately owned forests, mostly family-owned. But we also have tribal forests. And we have state forests … county parks and greenways … urban and community forests … and, of course, federal forests, including the national forests. And we all work together across these mixed landscapes through partnerships and collaboration.
The East Capitol Urban Farm is a good example. Some partners come from the private sector, like American Forests. Others come from research and academia, like the University of the District of Columbia. Still others come from community groups and from the public sector, like the Forest Service.
And, as Scott explained, the Forest Service and American Forests have a long history of working together. For more than 110 years, our two organizations have worked together replanting after fires, restoring wildlife habitat, and protecting threatened forest types such as whitebark pine and longleaf pine. In just the last 25 years, we have planted more than 20 million trees. We have restored more than 85,000 acres in our national forests. That’s 133 square miles!
Urban trees are the hardest working trees because they serve so many people and purposes. After all, more than 80 percent of Americans live, work, and play in our metropolitan areas, surrounded by their urban and community forests. When you put people in a forested environment, their blood pressure and heart rate go down. Surrounded by trees, people think better and feel better. Kids do better in school, adults do better at work, and people recover faster from sickness.
That is why the East Capitol Urban Farm is a special place. It is a community partnership that will benefit this city and its urban watershed.
So I am pleased to announce that we are adding another tree to the landscape. It’s a scarlet oak, the official tree of Washington, DC.
The scarlet oak is one of the most beautiful trees in any season, but its rich red fall foliage is a marvel to behold. Many different kinds of wildlife use this tree … for acorns and more. It will also add shade, reduce storm water runoff, and stabilize the soil.
So … in a nutshell … it’s never either/or — it’s about all of us working together across shared landscapes, both private and public, to ensure that Americans will continue to get all the benefits they want and need from their forests, for generations to come.”
On Monday, October 26, 2015, American Forests hosted a ceremonial tree planting at the East Capitol Urban Farm in honor of its 140th anniversary and to recognize the signing of a new MOU with the U.S. Forest Service. During the ceremony, Scott Steen, President & CEO of American Forests, gave the following remarks:
“Before the theory of relativity, the aspirin, the x-ray and the discovery of the electron; before the automobile, the telephone, motion pictures and electric light; before airplanes flew and radios gave us knowledge of the world beyond our own towns — before all those things, American Forests was at work.
American Forests was there as waves of immigrants began the journey westward. We were there at the very genesis of the conservation movement in America. We were there as a new view took hold that perhaps nature had a value in and of itself, beyond its immediate utility to humans; and we were there as a new dawn revealed a planet more fragile than we knew.
During this same time, timber barons were rapidly stripping the Midwest and West of their forests, while homesteaders were just as quickly converting forest to farmland. North American wildlife was being hunted to the point of extinction. People needed jobs and houses, farmland and food.
It seemed the choice was nature or progress. But, we at American Forests said — both.
It was one of our founders who convinced President Grant that managing forests was the responsibility of the federal government. And, it was at an American Forest Congress in 1905 that a consensus was forged to create a national agency to care for our forests. And, with that, our partnership with the U.S. Forest Service began.
American Forests was there in 1933, as our nation was in the grip of the Great Depression. With unemployment, hunger and homelessness spiking, caring for our forests seemed like a low priority.
People needed jobs. They needed places to live. They needed food.
Again, we argued that this was a false choice, that we can meet the needs of nature AND of men.
At our urging, less than a month after taking office, President Franklin Roosevelt signed a bill making the Civilian Conservation Corps a reality.
Decades later, in the 1960s and ‘70s, America’s cities were burning. Crime, poverty and struggle defined our urban life. Urban renewal was demolishing old neighborhoods and putting up endless concrete landscapes.
But, we believed that nature in cities — trees, parks and fields —was a vital connection to our own humanity and could be used to solve urban problems.
Once again, the argument was set up as progress or nature. Once again, American Forests said both. And, the urban forest movement was given shape.
During the past 25 years, we have planted 50 million trees in more than 1,000 restoration projects. Nearly half of these have been in partnership with the U.S. Forest Service.
This work has made our water and air cleaner and our cities greener.
Working together, we have helped cool the planet and slow the creep of climate change. And, we have protected and restored habitat for dozens of threatened and endangered species, from grizzly bears to gopher tortoises.
Our belief that nature can enable human progress is at work right here, on this three-acre urban farm set in a neighborhood that has often lacked access to fresh produce. Right here, on what was once a vacant lot in the middle of the city, a group of innovators chose to use nature to solve a human challenge.
Nature and progress. Both. Today, the need for this kind of thinking is even greater and the stakes are higher than ever before.
Once again, there are those who would tell us that protecting wildlife is too expensive; that addressing climate change costs jobs; that we can have forests or we can have houses; that nature will take care of itself, and we should let the market decide.
But, we have learned time and again that by caring for nature we are caring for humanity.
As we look forward to our continuing partnership with the U.S. Forest Service and to our next 140 years, our calling at American Forests remains this: to find new ways to say both — wildlife AND human life; forests AND prosperity; nature AND progress. It’s not going to be easy. But, the reality is, to have either, we must have both.”
On Monday, October 26, 2015, American Forests hosted a ceremonial tree planting at the East Capitol Urban Farm in honor of its 140th anniversary and to recognize the signing of a new MOU with the U.S. Forest Service. During the ceremony, Dr. Dwane Jones, Director of the Center for Sustainable Development College of Agriculture, Urban Sustainability and Environmental Sciences University of the District of Columbia, gave the following remarks:
“First, I want to thank the many, many partners involved in this effort — our local partners are invaluable and include: the DCBIA, American Forests, Groundwork Anacostia, the DC Housing Authority, DC Commission on the Arts, the District Department of Energy and the Environment, the Mayor’s Office, Metropolitan National Church and numerous others.
Each of these partners contributed to the continued success of the project in multiple ways, including, but not limited to, financial and technical assistance, expertise, community engagement and land resources.
We are especially indebted to American Forests for providing education and demonstration on the importance of an urban tree canopy and for connecting us with the DC Building Industry Association, which helped expand our initial vision into the multi-faceted urban space that you see today. The University of the District of Columbia’s College of Agriculture, Urban Sustainability, and Environmental Sciences (aka “CAUSES”) fully supports systemic initiatives like those of American Forests, that promote sustainable development in urban areas by helping to mitigate climate change, provide clean air and improve quality of life in urban environments.
I also want to thank the Urban Waters Federal Partnership — an initiative launched by this Administration to restore urban rivers, and the communities that surround them, with an emphasis on those communities that need the most help.
The Urban Waters Federal Partnership convened many federal agencies around this effort — like USDA’s Beltsville Agricultural Research Service and the USDA Forest Service’s Urban and Community Forestry program which provided funding and materials, Department of Interior and Fish and Wildlife Service for helping convene the federal family and help fund, plan and implement the nature playspace and the U.S. EPA for committing funds early on which helped encourage other federal Partners to consider their contribution.
The Urban Waters Federal Partnership helped also bring national entities, like American Forests and Walmart, to the table.
While today we celebrate 140 years of American Forests and its long-standing relationship with the US Forest Service, we do so standing on the site of a project that took a community of people and partners to make it happen. Thank you, American Forest, USDA and all of the partners engaged in this effort. We look forward to continuing our work with your organizations and many more opportunities to improve economic opportunities and quality for communities in the District of Columbia and across the world.”
Find out the latest in forestry news in this week’s Forest Digest!
- US forests under threat as demand for wood-based biofuels grows – report — The Guardian
A report recently released by the Natural Resources Defense Council revealed that increased wood pellet exports for biofuels, particularly to Europe, are threatening “ecologically important” forests in the United States.
- X-ray technology reveals California’s forests are in for a radical transformation — Los Angeles Times
Biologist Greg Asher has used x-ray technology to calculate that the state of California could lose between 7 and 20 percent of its trees; forests normally lose between 1 and 1.5 percent annually.
- Fall Foliage Timing Comes into Clearer Focus — Scientific American
After careful analysis of satellite imagery from different forest ecosystems in the New England region, researchers have gained a better understanding as to the factors influencing autumn’s foliage color change.
- Saving the forest for the beers — TreeHugger.com
This TreeHugger.com article takes a unique approach to discussing the need for healthy forests: clean water provided by forest ecosystems is important for brewing beer!