Every Kid in a Park & Community ReLeaf: Serving America’s Children and Urban Forests

by American Forests

By Andrew Bell, Policy Intern

Every Kid in a ParkThis week, the Outdoor Alliance for Kids hosted a suite of activities centered on their “Every Kid in a Park” event held at Rock Creek Park in Washington, D.C. To pay homage to the Alliance’s devotion to youth and to celebrate their success, let’s take a look at the groundbreaking initiative that made all of this possible.

On September 1st, the Obama Administration announced the “Every Kid in a Park” program, setting the stage for a shift in how today’s children view and interact with the great outdoors. Since that day, fourth graders across the nation can now access free family passes to every federally-managed land and waterway in the entire country for the 2015-2016 school year, just by signing up on the program’s website.

The National Parks Foundation is generously pitching in by providing transportation for underserved communities, therefore, seeing that no barrier stands between a child and this beautiful country’s natural treasures. The program will ideally be an ongoing one, renewing for each year’s fourth graders so that all school-age children will have had the opportunity to make the outdoor connection.

In the organizational world of conservation, sometimes it’s easy to get caught up in what we’re doing to the point where we forget why we’re doing it. Just as much as we depend on our natural areas for sustaining life, we turn to it when seeking respite and revitalization. And, in a world that is becoming more urbanized and sedentary with each passing day, it’s increasingly important that the splendors of outdoor exploration, discovery and admiration are not lost on those who stand to gain the most from it — those who embody the bright future of humanity.

It’s also no secret that children are identifying more and more with technological advancement and at a younger age, too. But, through our own experiences, we know that children can form an inexplicable bond with the world around them. The backdrops for videogames may have replicated some of Earth’s most awe-inspiring habitats, but it’s the effort through programs like “Every Kid in a Park” that sees to it that they are never replaced.

The well-being of children should always be a priority, and American Forests takes that to heart. We realize that children are not just our future in a general sense, but they are the very future of forest conservation and will carry on the unfinished work we leave behind. That’s one of the reasons why American Forests is so dedicated to conserving forests even in our nation’s most urban areas through our Community ReLeaf program. Since 2013, the program has already amassed ongoing restoration projects and partnerships in almost a dozen cities across the country, with a goal of 20 by the year 2020. Whether you’re in Oakland, California, Hartford, Connecticut or somewhere in between, American Forests is mission-driven to see your city’s children at play in a vibrant and thriving habitat.

It’s organizations like American Forests, the Outdoor Alliance for Kids and others that quietly keep our cities lush and green. That kind of initiative literally sets the stage for lawmakers and administrations to work magic through programs like “Every Kid in a Park.” It’s a concerted effort by all to see to it that our children get to make that inexplicable connection with nature and the great outdoors, even when the odds are increasingly stacked against their favor. It’s a monumental task to undertake, but undoubtedly one worth taking.

American Forests relies on your support to make projects like the Community ReLeaf program a reality. Click here to get involved!

GR25: Loyal Partners for Restoration in 1997

by Jami Westerhold
Planting in LRGV

Volunteers lending a hand at a planting in the Lower Rio Grande Valley in 2014

If you follow American Forests pretty regularly, our project highlight for 1997 will not be a huge surprise. In 1997, we began our long-standing relationship working in Texas in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV). Though this project is not our oldest, it is American Forests’ longest running project that has been consistent since it began 18 years ago. American Forests has helped plant more than two million trees, restoring more than 4,000 acres. This project has sustained due to a close partnership with the Friends of the Wildlife Refuge and the National Fish and Wildlife Service’s staff at both the LRGV National Wildlife Refuge and the Santa Anna National Wildlife Refuge.

We have been working on restoring the talmulipan brushland throughout the southern border of Texas. Once a flourishing ecosystem that served as a corridor for many wildlife species, these forests were severely fragmented. Approximately 95 percent of the native forested and wetland habitats were removed for agricultural use. As you may know, forest fragmentation takes a huge toll on the wildlife that depend on these forested ecosystems, and the LRGV is no different. Actually, the diversity of wildlife within the LRGV is quite staggering. Though we often focus on the endangered ocelot, there are more than 300 species of butterflies and 700 species of vertebrates — including at least 500 bird species — in these refuges. This is not even taking into account the 1,200 species of native plants that can be found in these ecosystem. I was lucky enough to visit the LRGV last March, and I saw more bird species in my two days there than I have in the last decade. It was incredible, and I hope to go back soon. To learn a little bit more about this project — and to see some of these animals — watch this video.

Because American Forests’ partnerships are essential to our success, we wanted to highlight another amazing partnership with the Applegate Partnership & Watershed Council (APWC) that began in 1997 and that existed on-and-off for at least 15 years, planting hundreds of thousands of trees in riparian areas of the Applegate River in Oregon. As we are now in the shadow of planting our 50 millionth tree, it is amazing to think that American Forests’ five millionth tree was planted in this project’s inaugural planting in 1997.

These lands, owned by the Bureau of Land Management and Applegate River Watershed Council, had been degraded over time due to grazing, logging and residential development, but suffered from substantial flooding in January 1997. The project aimed to involve community volunteers to restore the riparian buffers to provide shade, reduced erosion and sedimentation and improve the water quality and fish habitat. These watersheds are home to a variety of aquatic species, including the threatened coho salmon. Though we and APWC had been working on restoring the riparian areas of the watershed for more than a decade, a 2012 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service survey exposed that portions were an unsuitable habitat for summer and winter rearing and spawning. Always more work to do! In addition, 55 percent of the Thompson Creek watershed has been identified as habitat for the threatened northern spotted owl. This species — and its listing on the Endangered Species Act in 1990 — led to a great amount on controversy and restoration work in the Northwest forests for years, but that’s a whole other story.

Forest Digest – Week of September 7, 2015

by American Forests

Find out the latest in forestry news in this week’s Forest Digest!

American Forests Celebrates 140th Birthday!

by American Forests

Today, September 10, 2015, American Forests is celebrating 140 years of protecting and restoring forest ecosystems! While we are excited to commemorate this milestone as an organization, we know that the work we have done and will continue to do would not be possible without the support of so many of you. So, thank you!

As we celebrate our 140th anniversary, we have had the opportunity to reflect on the many events and accomplishments that have defined the history of our organization while also looking forward to the work to be done in the future. This timeline represents some of those important memories and future goals. Plus, you can read even more about many of these events by flipping through your Spring/Summer 2016 issue of American Forests magazine or reading the articles here.

  • Eden Park, site of the first American Forestry Congress

    Eden Park, site of the first American Forestry Congress

    Led by Dr. John Aston Warder, concerned citizens found the American Forestry Association (AFA), now known as American Forests, to “protect the existing forests of the country from unnecessary waste.”

  • 1882
    AFA holds the first American Forestry Congress with a tree planting in Eden Park attended by 50,000 people.
  • 1888
    Mrs. Ellen Call Long presents “Notes on Some of the Forest Features of Florida,” the paper that would lead to prescribed burning, to AFA.
  • 1891
    After four years of work, AFA’s promotion of a bill that grants the president power to set aside forest reserves – a precursor to national forests – is successful. The same year, President Harrison proclaims nearly 13 million acres of forest reserves.
  • 1894
    American Forests magazine debuts.
  • 1911
    AFA succeeds in passing the Weeks Act, allowing for acquisition of forest reserves to protect watersheds and marking the first time in history that the federal government had purchased land specifically in recognition of its ecological services.
  • First Lady Harding plants a memorial tree

    First Lady Harding plants a memorial tree

    AFA launches memorial tree planting campaigns. First Lady Mrs. Warren G. Harding plants first memorial tree in Washington, D.C.

  • 1923
    American Forests publishes the first of many articles by Aldo Leopold.
  • 1924
    AFA gifts President and Mrs. Coolidge a living 35-foot Norway spruce planted near the White House on Sherman Plaza. It is the first living National Christmas Tree.
  • 1928
    AFA creates the Dixie Crusaders to educate people about wildfire.
  • 1930
    AFA conducts Congressional information campaigns that lead to the creation and protection of national parks in the Florida Everglades, Grand Tetons and Olympic mountains.
  • 1933
    AFA works with President Franklin D. Roosevelt to create the Civilian Conservation Corps. We also launch Trail Riders of the Wilderness.
  • 1940
    The national register of American Forests Champion Trees, then called American Big Trees Report, is established.
  • President Eisenhower presents Smokey Bear statuette to AFA President Don Johnston

    President Eisenhower presents Smokey Bear statuette to AFA President Don Johnston (center)

    AFA is presented a Smokey Bear statuette in recognition of its years of forest fire advocacy and education work.

  • 1968
    With the help of AFA, a new Task Force on a National Program for Wildfire Control is formed.
  • 1970
    Along with five other organizations, AFA is invited to submit its position and policy on clear-cutting by the Council on Environmental Quality.
  • 1982
    AFA launches its Urban Forests program and convenes the National Urban Forest Conference.
  • 1986
    After years of advocacy by AFA, President Ronald Reagan signs the 1985 Farm Bill, including the new Conservation Reserve program, into law.
  • 1988
    AFA announces Global ReLeaf, a program of tree planting for ecosystem restoration that addresses global challenges through local action.
  • 1989
    After decades of advocacy and policy work, AFA wins the battle to convince Congress to pass a national urban forestry policy.
  • Atlanta tree cover satellite images

    Atlanta tree cover satellite images

    The first Global ReLeaf forest established in Au Sable, Mich. Christopher Reeve stars in Global ReLeaf PSAs for the Discovery Channel.

  • 1991
    Global ReLeaf is awarded a President’s Citation for Innovation. First international Global ReLeaf project is established in Hungary.
  • 1992
    AFA is renamed American Forests as a reflection of its conservation focus.
  • 1996
    American Forests introduces CITYgreen software to analyze ecosystem and economic benefits of urban tree canopies and green spaces. Atlanta is the first satellite tree cover analysis.
  • 1998
    Forest Policy Center gives national policy voice to community-based ecosystem management. American Forests premieres Silent Witnesses, narrated by actor James Whitmore, on public television.
  • 1999
    Global ReLeaf plants its 10 millionth tree. American Forests partners with the White House to plant Millennium Groves in every state and territory.
  • Oprah's Angel Network joins with AF to plant trees

    Oprah’s Angel Network joins with AF to plant trees

    The Global ReLeaf program undertakes Trees for Tigers to help save Siberian tigers from extinction.

  • 2002
    American Forests conducts Freedom Trees, Patriot Trees and Memorial Trees to honor victims and heroes of 9/11.
  • 2009
    After a year of advocacy by American Forests, the Federal Land Assistance, Management and Enhancement (FLAME) Act to establish a federal emergency fund for the suppression of sever wildfires is signed into law. American Forests joins Oprah’s Angel Network to plant trees around Habitat for Humanity for those displaced by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
  • 2010
    American Forests joins the Sustainable Urban Forests Coalition (SUFC) advocating for legislation relating to urban forestry and green infrastructure. American Forests throws its support behind President Obama’s America’s Great Outdoors (AGO) initiative.
  • 2011
    American Forests throws its support behind Representative Matsui’s TREES Act that would support programs run by electric utilities to work with tree-planting nonprofits to use strategically planted shade trees in order to reduce residential energy demand.
  • 2012
    American Forests launches the Endangered Western Forests initiative – focusing, in its first stage, on the dangers facing the high-elevation whitebark pine of the Greater Yellowstone Area.
  • The first Community ReLeaf planting event took place is Asbury Park, N.J. with sponsor Bank of America Foundation

    The first Community ReLeaf planting event took place is Asbury Park, N.J. with sponsor Bank of America Foundation

    American Forests launches Community ReLeaf, a program dedicated to the assessment, restoration and monitoring of urban forests based on research and conversations with urban forest managers.

  • 2014
    American Forests creates the Big Tree Working Groups, convening a diverse array of experts to assist the program by addressing some of the tough questions inherent in crowning champion trees.
  • 2015
    American Forests plants 50 millionth Global ReLeaf tree and undertakes 1,000th Global ReLeaf project.
  • 2016
    American Forests launches the Urban Innovation Lab, an online community for urban forest practitioners.
  • 2020
    American Forests expands Community ReLeaf to 20 cities.
  • 2075
    American Forests celebrates its 200th Anniversary.

2015 American Forests Photo Contest Winners!

by American Forests

This summer, we held our first ever Trees Please photo contest, and it was a major success. Whether a simple, yet stunning landscape, a representation of the sheer size and scale of trees or a close look at trees’ powerful details, the photos each conveyed a different story. With so many gorgeous shots to choose from, it was a difficult decision. But, we are thrilled to highlight our 2015 American Forests Photo Contest winning photographs!

Grand Prize Winner: “Checking out the Redwood Forest”

Checking Out the Redwood Forest

Photographer: Yinghai Lu (CA); Location: Bull Creek Flat in Humboldt Redwoods State Park, Calif.

Honorable Mention: “Independence I”

Independence I

Photographer: Jason Liske (CA); Location: Sierra Nevada, Calif.

Honorable Mention: “Prairie Creek”

Prairie Creek

Photographer: Mario Vaden (OR); Location: Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, near Orick, Calif.

Honorable Mention: “Horse Chesnut at Dawn”

Horse Chesnut at Dawn

Photographer: Diana Fraser (MD); Location: Family farm in Maryland

People’s Choice Winner: “Tree Love in Vermont”

Tree Love in Vermont

Photographer: Madeline Ligenza (VT); Location: Mt. Philo, Vt.

Forest Digest – Week of August 31, 2015

by American Forests

Find out the latest in forestry news in this week’s Forest Digest!

  • Mount McKinley

    Mount McKinley in Alaska. Photo by Christoph Strässler/Flickr.

    Lots of Trees to Hug: Study Counts 3 Trillion Trees on Earth New York Times
    A new study that was just released reveals that there are now more than three trillion trees growing on earth. While this is seven times more than researchers previously thought, it remains alarmingly less than it used to be.

  • The World Lost Two Portugals’ Worth of Forest Last YearTakePart
    As demand for palm oil increases and, therefore, deforestation continues to take its toll on forests, a new study has revealed that, last year alone, we lost enough forest to cover the country of Portugal two times, equaling 45 million acres.
  • Mount McKinley Will Again Be Called DenaliThe Guardian
    This week during President Obama’s visit to Alaska, he gave an executive order that renamed Mount McKinley, the tallest mountain in the continental U.S., its original, native name of Denali. The restoration of its native name holds cultural significance for local Alaskan tribes.

GR25: Planting for Eagles in 1998

by Megan Higgs
Bald Eagle

Photo by Chuck Fazio

Stars, stripes and bald eagles: few symbols are as ubiquitous and enmeshed with American culture as these three. Indeed, the American flag and the bald eagle alike have been idolized as symbols of bravery, courage, resilience and many other qualities that the U.S.A. prides and cherishes. The eagle has a widespread hold across the U.S., as well – the bird’s native range covers much of the continental U.S., as well as Canada and northern Mexico.

However, as many Americans know, our national animal’s populations have not always been safe – in fact, the species was declared a federally listed endangered species in 1967. But, how is the eagle doing now, and what could have caused such a decline?

Throughout the mid-20th century following World War II, a supposed “wonder chemical” of a pesticide called DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) was widely used for both insect-borne disease prevention and for insect control for crops, gardens and homes. Of course, DDT is now known for its notoriety in the famed 1962 environmental science book, Silent Spring. Throughout the controversial classic’s pages, author Rachel Carson penned the numerous detrimental effects of DDT on human and wildlife populations – in particular, the effects on birds. As Carson dramatically wrote:

“There was once a town in the heart of America where all life seemed to live in harmony with its surroundings … Then a strange blight crept over the area and everything began to change … There was a strange stillness … The few birds seen anywhere were moribund; they trembled violently and could not fly. It was a spring without voices. On the mornings that had once throbbed with the dawn chorus of scores of bird voices there was now no sound; only silence lay over the fields and woods and marsh.”

While not lethal to adult bald eagles, DDT is attributed to disastrous effects on the birds’ reproductive cycles.  DDT interfered particularly with the eagle’s calcium metabolism, causing many birds to be sterile. Female eagles that were still able to reproduce often laid eggs with extremely brittle shells, causing most offspring to die before they were able to hatch.  Additionally, rampant loss of habitat and hunting dwindled the bird’s numbers throughout much of the first half of the 20th century.

A nationwide ban of DDT took place in 1972, and over time, bald eagle populations have begun to rebound. By the 1950s, breeding pairs had dwindled to only 412 nationwide; it is now estimated that that number has risen to over 9,700 across the lower 48 contiguous states as of 2006.

In 1998, American Forests contributed to this monumental comeback by planting 12,650 trees in the breeding and wintering ranges of bald eagles through a large part of the Klamath winter roosting area. This project implemented part of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Pacific Bald Eagle Management Recovery Plan, a plan that encompassed seven states (including California) and worked to restore a minimum of 800 breeding pairs throughout the plan’s range. The number of breeding pairs has now approached twice this minimum goal thanks to the halting of DDT usage, strict restrictions against hunting or trapping eagles and habitat restoration programs such as these.  The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service removed the bald eagle from the list of endangered species in August 2007; however, the bird remains endangered in California. Regardless, the future is looking bright for a bird that has embodied a symbol of perseverance throughout the U.S. – bald eagles were found to be nesting in 28 of California’s counties by the close of the 1990s, up from a mere eight counties in 1977.

Forest Digest – Week of August 24, 2015

by American Forests
Boreal forest

Boreal forest at Indian Point on Taku River. Photo credit: Taku River Tlingit First Nation

Find out the latest in forestry news in this week’s Forest Digest!

  • Gabon: protecting vital forests, and communitiesThe Guardian
    Take a look at how efforts in Gabon are attempting to balance the demands for forests to meet the immediate needs of locals with forests role in preserving biodiversity and combating the changing climate.

Why I’m Here: The Impact of Increased Housing Development on Our Forests & Our Emotions

by American Forests

By Andrew Bell, Policy Intern

Forest in West Virginia

Forests provided a the perfect playground for policy intern Andrew Bell near his home in West Virginia. Photo by Andrew Bell

As the fall semester policy intern, I think a fitting introduction would express how I arrived at this destination and how protecting and restoring American forests has become our shared mission. I was born and raised in northeastern West Virginia. The state is affectionately referred to as “Wild, Wonderful” and for good reason, with the Blue Ridge Mountains and crisp whitewater rapids cascading with similar grandeur. I humbly thank my home state for its large contribution to the young man that I am today.

But, my experience with the great outdoors has not come without its fair share of heartbreaks, with the most recent of these being perhaps the single greatest reason that I’ve strived for this opportunity at American Forests.

I’m sure many of you had “your spot” growing up, and may still have one today. Whether it’s a secret swimming hole, a stump for reading on or even a garden-getaway in a big city, we have heard nature’s inexplicable call and found solace and respite there.

A small clearing atop a grand limestone cliff was my spot. Its unparalleled vista and brilliant sunsets made for the most awe-inspiring gallery for miles. While my pursuit of higher education took me to Arizona, where the desert wilderness is undeniably sublime, the majesty of the Appalachians and that cliff always welcomed me home as family.

But, one fall’s return home was marred by unfamiliar loss and a confrontation with a now-inescapable trend. The top of that cliff (and most of what led to it) had been cleared entirely, with its treasures being replaced by the foundation of what appeared to be something of a mansion.

I traversed what I thought to be the path I had hiked so many times before, but its bareness was blinding. I searched with pitiful fervor for something of a landmark, but that once-welcoming sanctuary was cold and silent.

One man built his mansion while unknowingly destroying another’s. Tragically so, I’m more than aware that I am not alone in having such a story. It is one of many truths embodying our troubled relationship with nature, and one that is virtually inescapable in our rapidly developing country. According to the U.S. Forest Service’s (USFS) Forests on the Edge reports from 2005 and 2009,  my slice of West Virginia  graduated from the “less than 50th percentile” to the upper end of the “90th percentile” in terms of private forests bound to experience increased housing development over a 30-year span. In just four short years, their estimate had skyrocketed in the ballpark of 25 percent.

And, West Virginia is not alone: Its Eastern counterparts, such as Florida, the Carolinas and Maryland, are all suffering from a comparable fate. And, in some cases, states along the West Coast, like California, are looking at numbers twice as large. Factoring in the 10 million acres of forest lost to development since 1982, alongside the projected 26 million more lost by 2030, the grand total will be comparable in size to the state of Georgia.

But, my opportunity here at American Forests has afforded me the chance to see it in black and white (Or, in this case, according to the USFS’ map detailing private forests susceptible to increased housing density, an alarming amount of red). And, equally so, it breaks my heart to see what were once pockets of heat on the map shoot up the coast like a wildfire.

They say all good things come to an end. This account is seemingly a reluctant endorsement of that sentiment. But, more so, I think it inspires the necessity of just the opposite in me, the necessity of being thankful for what we have left and taking the individual action to conserve all of our natural “mansions.”

My story brought me here, to our nation’s capital, and the wonderfully exciting organization of American Forests. Whatever your story may be, something brought you here as well. Whether this is your first or 100th time reading this blog, you want to do something, too. While that something will be different for everyone, I firmly believe we’ve found the right place.

To find out how you can get involved too, visit our Action Center.

The Mental Benefits Provided by Urban Forests

by American Forests

By Conrad Kabbaz, Policy Intern

Kids climbing treeWe all feel better after a walk in the park, but can trees really be key to our mental well-being? According to recent studies featured in the New York Times and The New Yorker, they might, improving our physical health as well.

Promising Results

This possibility piqued the interest of Gregory Bratman, a Stanford graduate student.  A study he conducted showed improved happiness and attentiveness after participants walked through a green portion of the university campus. Subjects were compared to another group who walked the same distance near heavy traffic, devoid of vegetation. The “traffic” group reported lower happiness and attentiveness than their “green” peers. While these results were telling, they did not establish a tangible cause for this disparity.

Determined to pinpoint physical mechanism by which nature affects our mood, Bratman organized another study with a similar premise. Two groups of volunteers completed walks of similar distances, one in a park-like area of the Stanford campus and another near a major highway; effects to their moods were measured. This time, however, Bratman used brain scans to examine blood flow to a specific region of the brain associated with negative thoughts. Higher flow means more negative thinking, while lower indicates calmness, positivity, or “happiness.” Again, the “green” group subjects were happier than their “traffic” counterparts, but this time Bratman was able to correlate these differences with actual changes in blood flow in their brains. These results are particularly promising for urban residents, as the volunteers in this latest study were all “city dwellers.”

Another study, led by University of Chicago professor Marc Berman, looked at the health effects of urban forests on Toronto residents. Researchers found that neighborhoods with higher concentrations of trees not only “felt” better, but had lower rates of death from cardiovascular conditions. Perhaps most interesting is that, unlike Bratman’s Stanford study, most subjects were not exposed to an immersive, park-like environment.  In contrast, roadside trees constituted the vast majority of urban forestry.  Therefore positive mood and health benefits are not limited to those with access to forested parks, but available to a large portion of urban residents.

Not Just How… But Why?

Again, there is the question of why nature has these effects on people. Bratman illuminated the physical cause of the mood changes, namely blood flow in the brain, but not why this reaction is triggered. According to Berman, the answer may lie in the concept of “directed” and “involuntary” attention.  I touched on this in my previous blog post about urban forests and children with ADHD, and the explanation remains the same. Directed attention is used for periods of specific focus, such as during a test or while driving. Involuntary attention is used when there is no specific target of attention, such as just sitting on a park bench. Birds chirping, trees blowing in the wind and passersby all momentarily capture your attention before it shifts to something else.  Directed attention is a finite capacity, requiring periods of rest so it may be replenished.  Involuntary attention provides this rest period, allowing your mind to recharge.

Nature draws on involuntary attention so the connection between urban forests and better moods and attentiveness is clear. In fact, Berman conducted a study decades ago at the University of Michigan where participants took a walk through either a natural or urban environment. Afterwards, they completed a cognitive assessment and the “natural” group performed better than the “urban” one. This indicated a higher capacity for directed attention in the “natural” group resulting from their exposure to nature.  As Berman’s Toronto study demonstrated, these performance benefits are not contingent on full immersion in a park-like setting, but rather are triggered by any visual exposure to urban forests.

The Big Picture

Studies like these provide insight into more than self-reported happiness or reduced stress. Through objective measures like brain scans and cognitive assessments, researchers can determine the physical and mental reactions that trigger these effects. The potential implications are huge for areas like urban planning, education, and medical treatment. Studies have shown that patients with a nature view from their hospital windows often recover sooner, with several now incorporating “healing gardens” into their grounds. These natural settings in courtyards or on rooftops provide a serene escape from the stark visuals of a standard hospital setting. Similarly, the directed attention boost from viewing nature has been observed to be five times more for those with depression. Patterns like these are exciting areas of study because the need for new solutions to problems like mental illness and stress is rising.

Learn more about the benefits of urban forests!

Learn More about Urban Forests